Clinical Profile and Response to First-Line Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients in Manipur


  • MS Ramaiah Medical College, Department of Medicine, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  • Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Department of Medicine, Imphal, Manipur, India


Background:Knowledge of demographic profiles and baseline characteristics of HIV infected patients is essential for devising prevention strategies. Analysis of factors influencing improvement in CD4 cell count will help to determine prognosis and better implementation of ART.

Objectives: This retrospective study was conducted on HIV patients in Manipur, to assess clinical profile and factors influencing baseline immunological status and response to ART.

Methodology: 1231 patients were enrolled. Baseline demographic and laboratory parameters were recorded. CD4 cell counts were recorded at baseline and 6 months after ART initiation.

Results: 66.3% patients were male, 74.6% aged 21-40 years, 65.6% were Hindus and 52.9% of urban residence. 17.5% patients had Haemoglobin ≤9 grams/dl. Prevalence of HIV-HBV and HIV-HCV coinfection was 3.4% and 20.5% respectively. Male sex (141.51±96.21 vs. 169.92±111.2 cells/mm3; p=0.001), age >20 years and Haemoglobin ≤9 g/dl (127.5±99.5 vs. 153.8±99.1cells/mm3; p=0.001) were associated with lower baseline CD4 count. Females (219.01±187.2 vs. 161.79±153.35cells/mm3; p=0.001), age group 1-20 years and those without HIV-HCV coinfections (188.72±170.81 vs. 154.20±155.88 cells/mm3; p=0.004) had significant improvement in CD4 count at 6 months-post ART initiation. CD4 response in HIV-HBV coinfected patients was lower (188.59±170.65 vs. 162.39±139.8 cells/mm3; p=0.324) but not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Majority of HIV patients in Manipur were - Males, Hindus, aged 21-40 years and of urban residence. Males, age >20 years and haemoglobin ≤9 g/dl were associated with lower baseline CD4 count. HIVHBV/ HIV-HCV coinfection wasn't associated with lower baseline CD4 count. Females, age <20 years and absence of HIV-HBV/HIV-HCV coinfections were associated with superior immunological response to ART.


Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, HIV-HBV Coinfection, HIV-HCV Coinfection, CD4 Count, Response to ART, HIV.

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