Cardioprotective Potential of Methanol Extract of Costus Afer Leaf on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats


  • University of Nigeria, Pharmacology and Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Nigeria


Costus afer leaf extract is one of the native heritages of folklore medicine in Nigeria, used for the treatment of various disease conditions. Therefore this study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of the methanol extract of Costus afer leaves on CCl4- induced cardiotoxicity in albino rats. Twenty-eight (28) albino rats were divided into four main groups: normal control (normal saline only), CCl4 control (saline and CCl4), aspirin treated (1.2 mg/kg b.w aspirin and CCl4) and Costus afer extract treated (extract and CCl4) groups. Costus afer extract was administered in four doses; 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg b.w. p.o for 7 days. On day 7, CCl4 (2.5 ml) cardiotoxicity was induced in animals of CCl4 control, aspirin treated and extract pre-treatment groups. The parameters studied in this respect were cardiac biomarker enzymes; Creatine Kinase (CK), Aspartate Transaminases (AST) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), serum lipid profile; Triacylglycerol (TAG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and artherogenic index (AR), lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde (MDA) level and enzymatic antioxidant levels of cardiac tissue homogenate; Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Reductase (GR). CCl4 intoxication produced significant (p < 0.05) increases in cardiac biomarker enzymes, serum lipid profile (TAG, TC, and LDL) along with enhanced lipid peroxidation in heart, while significant (p < 0.05) decreases in enzymatic antioxidant activities and HDL contents were also observed when compared to normal control. Costus afer leaf extract protected against  CCl< cardiotoxic effect by restoring the cardiac functions alterations, augmenting antioxidant activities, reducing lipid peroxidation and improving lipid profile levels near normal. From the results, Costus afer leaves expressed cardioprotective potential and could be helpful in the management of cardiac dysfunction.


Antioxidant Activity, Cardiotoxicity, Costus Afer, Carbon Tetrachloride, Myocardial Infarction

Subject Discipline

Pharmacological Research Unit; Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Full Text:


Karamian R, Fatemeh G. Screening of total phenol and flavonoid content antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the methanolic extracts of three Silene species from Iran. Intl J Agri Crop Sci. 2013; 5(3):305–12. Available from: IJACS/2013/5-3/305-312

World Health Organization. General guidelines for the methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2001.

Dhalla NS, Elmosielli AB, Hata, T, Makino N. Status of myocardial antioxidants in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc. Res. 2000; 47:446–56. Available from:

Hearse DJ. Prospects for antioxidant therapy in cardiovascular medicine. Am J Med. 1991; 91:1185–215. Available from:

Liu SO, Yu JP, Chen HL, Luo HS, Chen SM. and Yu HG. Therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of Ginko biloba extract on liver fibrosis in rats. American J Chin Med. 2006; 34:99–114. PMid:16437743. Available from:

Ichikawa H, Wang L, Konishi T. Prevention of cerebral oxidative injury by post ischemic intravenous administration of Shengmai San. American J Chin Med. 2006; 34:591–600. PMid:16883630. Available from:

Khan RA. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens on rats' testis damage by CCl4. Lipids Health Dis. 2012; 11:103. DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-103. Available from:

Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S. Protective effects of Sonchus asper against KBrO3 induced lipid peroxidation in rats. Lipids Health Dis.2012; 11(1):164. DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-164. Available from:

Khan RA. Protective effect of Sonchus asper (L) Hill (Asteraceae) against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in the thyroid tissue of rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012; 12:181. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-181. Available from:

Iwu MM. Handbook of African medicinal plants. London: CRC; 1993.

Aweke. Costus afer ker Gawl. Record from PROTA4U. In: Schmeizer G. H, Gurib-Fakim, A, editors. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Resources Vegetables de L' Afrique Tropicale. Netherlands: Wageningen; 2007. Available from:

Momoh S, Yusuf OW, Adamu MM, Agwu COC, Atanu FO. Evaluation of the phytochemical composition and hypoglycemic activity of methanolic leaves extract of Costus afer in albino rats. Br J Pharm Res.2001; 1(1):1-8. Available from:

Anyasor GN, Funmilayo DO, Odutola O, Olugbenga A, Bawo O, Efere MO. Chemical constituents in n-butanol fractions of Costus afer ker Gawl leaf and stem. J intercult ethnopharmacol. 2014; 3(2):78-84. DOI: 10.5455/jice.20140112010648. Available from:

Omokhua GE. Medicinal and socio-cultural importance of Costus afer (ker Gawl) in Nigeria. Afr Res. 2011; 5(5):282–7.

Anyasor GN, Funmilayo DO, Odutola O, Olugbenga A. Hematological and lipid profile evaluation of a hexane fraction of Costus afer leaves in arthritic rats. Pharm Biol. 2014; 53(11):1671–6. PMid:25857603. Available from: ttps://

Taiwo AO, Bolanle AA. The leaf essential oil of Costus afer ker Gawl from Nigeria. Flavour Frag J. 2013; 18(4):309-311. Available from:

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. London: Chapman and Hall Ltd; 1973.

Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 15th ed. London: Saunder Publisher; 2002.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern technique of plant analysis. London: Champman and Hall; 1998. PMid:28308423

Arumugam P, Ramamurthy P, Santhiya ST, Ramesh A. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn: An analysis by ABTS*+ decolorization assay. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006; 15(1):119–24. PMid:16500887

Agbafor KN, Ezeani C, Akubugwo EI, Obiudu IK, Uraku AJ, Ogbanshi ME, Edwin N, Ugwu OPC. Cardioprotective effect of leaf and root extracts of Newbouldia leavis against carbon tetrachloride induced-cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats. European J Med. Plants. 2015; 9(3):1–7. Available from:

Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxide in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Annal Biochem. 1979; 95:51–5. Available from:

Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. Modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 1984; 2:130–2.

Aebi H. Catalase: In: Bergmeyer, Hv eds. Methods in enzymatic analysis analysis. New York: Academic Press Inc; 1994. PMCid:PMC44120

Bentler E. Effect of flavin compounds on glutathione reductase activity: In vivo and In Vitro Studies. J Clin Invest. 1975; 48:1957–66. PMid:5822598 PMCid:PMC322432. Available from:

Akpabio UD, Udo UE, Akpankpan AE. Evaluation of phytochemical, proximate and mineral element composition of stem of Costus afer. Asian J Plant Sci Res. 2012; 2:607–12.

Shalidi F, Janitha PK, Wanasundara SD. Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1992; 32:67−103. PMid:1290586.

Boumerfeg S, Baghiani A, Messaoudi D, Khennouf S, Arrar L. Antioxidant properties and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Tamus communis L root extracts. Phytother Res. 2009; 23:283–8. PMid:18844260. Available from:

Soetan KO. Pharmacological and other benefits of antinutritional factors in plants. A Review. Afr J Biotechnol. 2008; 7(25):4713–21.

Denwick PM. Natural product: A biosynthetic approach. 2nd ed. England: John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2002.

Sahreen S, Khan MR, Khan RA, Alkreathy HM. Cardioprotective role of leaves extract of Carissa opaca against CCl4-induced toxicity in rats. BMC Res Notes. 2014; 7:224. PMid:24716654 PMCid:PMC3983670. Available from:

Chrostek L, Szmitkowski M. Enzymatic diagnosis of alcoholism-induced damage of internal organs. Psychiatr Pol. 1989; 23(5-6):353–60. PMid:2577212.

Mair J. Cardiac troponin 1 and troponin T: Are enzymes still relevant as cardiac markers? Clinica Chimica Acta. 1997; 257(1):99–115. Available from:

Adams JE, Abendschein DR, Jaffe AS. Biochemical markers myocardial injury. Is MB creatine kinase the choice for 1990s? Circul. 1994; 88:750–63. Available from:

Khan MR, Ahmed D. Protective effect of Digera muricata (L.) mart on testis against oxidative stress of CCl4 in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47(6):1393–3. PMid:19327381. Available from:

Yakubu MT, Akanji, MA, Oladeji AT. Alternations in serum lipid profile of male rats by oral administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem. Res J Med Plants. 2008; 2:66–73.

Available from:

Gawel S, Wardao M, Niedworok, Wardas P. Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidatiion marker. Wiad Lek. 2004; 57(9-10):453–5. PMid:15765761

Papas AM. Other antioxidant. In: Antioxidant status, diet, nutrition, and health. Papas AM, editor. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1998. p. 231–48. PMid:10578093.

Shanmugarajan TS, Devaki T. Ficus hispida Linn. Leaf extract possesses antioxidant potential and abrogates azathioprine induced prooxidant and antioxidant imbalance in rat liver. Int J Pharm. 2008; 4: 376–81. Available from:

Ferrari R, Ceconi C, Cerelto S, Guarnieri CM, Albertini A, Visidi D. Oxygen mediated myocardial damage using ischemia and reperfusion: Role of cellular defences against oxygen toxicity. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1985; 17:937–45. Available from:

Anandan R, Asha KK, Ammu K, Matthew S, Nair PG. Effects of peroxidized PUFA on tissue defense system in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. In: Seafood safety society of fisheries technologists. Surendran PK, Matthew PT, Thampuran N, Nambiar N, Joseph J, Booopendranath MR, Lakhsmanan PT, Nair PGV, editor. Cochin India; 2003. p. 330–5.

Ojha S, Bhatia J, Arora S, Golechha M, Kumari S, Arya DS. Cardioprotective effects of Commiphora mukul against isoprenaline-induced cardiotoxicity: A biochemical and histopathological evaluation. J Env Biol. 2011; 32(6):731–8. PMid:22471209.

Rajasekaran NS, Devaraj H, Devaraj SN. The effect of Glutathione Monoester (GME) on glutathione (GSH) depleted rat liver. J Nutr Biochem. 2002; 13:302–6. Available from:


  • There are currently no refbacks.