Postural Discomfort and Musculoskeletal Disorders among the Agricultural Workers in Faizabad District


  • Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, School for Home Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226025, India
  • Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, School for Home Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226025, India
  • Chandigarh University, niversity Institute of Media Studies, Chandigarh, Punjab, 140413, India


Background: Farming has been considered a physically demanding and associated with high risk occupation for musculoskeletal disorders. Agricultural workers have to adapt different postures while working in the fields, e.g. standing, bending, sitting, kneeling, raising hand, etc. They work for long duration in awkward postures, due to which they have to face a lot of postural discomforts. They go through a lot of physical hazards, and sometimes they have to face severe pain. Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the musculoskeletal disorders and postural discomfort among the agricultural workers while working in the fields. Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted on 150 agricultural workers. The sample was randomly selected in the Balramau area of Faizabad district. A self-structured interview schedule and the postural discomfort scale developed by Corlett and Bishop in (1976) were used for data collection. Result: The study revealed that maximum pain was felt in the upper back, upper arms, mid-back, lower arms, lower back, and buttocks. Female agricultural workers felt more pain as compared to male agricultural workers. Conclusion: Agricultural workers face lot of pain in different body parts. Proper training program and information about musculoskeletal disorders symptoms should be given to agricultural workers so that they can get help in identifying the symptoms. Training programmers to agricultural workers in adopting right postures to minimise the stress also need to be conducted. 


Agricultural Workers, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Postural Discomfort, Working Postures

Full Text:


Kolstrup CL. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort of dairy farmers and employed workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 2012. content/7/1/23. PMid:23152974 PMCid:PMC3534013.

Kolstrup C, Stal M, Pinzke S, Lundqvist P. Ache, pain, and discomfort: The reward for working with many cows and sows? Journal of Agromedicine. 2006; 11(2). PMid:17135142.

Holmberg S, Stiernstrom M, Thelin A, Svardsudd K. Musculoskeletal symptoms among farmers and non-farmers. International Journal Occupation Environment Health. 2002; 8. PMid:12412852.

Gadhavi B, Shukla Y. Prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders in farmers of Gujarat. International Journal of Research and Review. 2019; 6(11).

Mokamelkhah EK, Aghilinejad M, Ahmadi AB, Abbaszadeh S, Moslemi S, Shahnaghi N, Nassiri-kashani MH. Role of farming in development risk of musculoskeletal disorders among rice farmers: A Prospective study. Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, 2015; 3.

Osborne A, Blake C, Namara JM, Meredith D, Phelan J, Cunningham C. Musculoskeletal disorders among Irish farmers. Society of Occupational Medicine. 2010; 60. PMid:20844056.

Gupta G, Tarique. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in farmers of Kanpur-Rural, India. Journal Community Med Health Education. 2013; 3(7).

David GC. Ergonomic methods for assessing exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Occupational Medicine. 2005; 55. PMid:15857898.

Davis KG, Kotowski SE. Understanding the ergonomic risk for musculoskeletal disorders in the United States Agricultural Sector. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2007. PMid:17506508.

Osborne A, Blake C, Fullen BM, Meredith D, Phelan J, McNamara J, Cunningham C. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among farmers: A systematic review. Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2012.

Nopkesorn T, Pannarunothi S. Prevalence of low back pain among rice farmers: A systematic review. American. 2011; 94(5).

Omran A, Reza G, Shamsedin AS, Yahya R, Pouria SD. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among farmers in Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015; 8(28).

Naeini HS. Karuppiah K, Tamrin SB, Dalal K. Ergonomics in agriculture: An approach in prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs). Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. 2014; 3.

Devi K, Kiran UV. Work related musculoskeletal disorders among workers in unorganized sector. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications. 2015; 3.

Srivastava S, Kiran UV. Work related musculoskeletal disorder on various body segments in taxi drivers. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2014; 3(6).

Kumari S, Kiran UV. Musculoskeletal disorders among rag pickers at Lucknow City. Journal of Ecophysiology and Occupational Health. 2020; 20(3&4).

Corlett, E. N. and Bishop, R. P. (1976) A technique for measuring postural discomfort.


  • There are currently no refbacks.