Comparative pentachlorophenol degrading potential of two bacterial consortia isolated from tannery and pulp and paper mill effluent sludge


  • Department of Environmental Sciences, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad, U.P, 224001, India
  • Department of Environmental Sciences, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad, U.P, 224001


Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is highly toxic and recalcitrant compound which is frequently and extensively being used in a variety of industries (wood, cardboard, leather etc.) and agriculture as a preservative and biocide. The PCP degrading bacterial consortia isolated from tannery and pulp and paper mill effluents were enriched in a chemostat containing mineral salt media. The bacterial strains obtained from chemostat were characterized as two species each of Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter and one species of Sphingomonas from Tannery effluent and three species of Pseudomonas and one species of Flavobacterium from pulp and Paper mill effluent. The enriched bacterial consortia were applied for the removal of PCP in a lab-scale bioreactor and it was observed that bacterial consortium isolated from tannery effluent have more capability to degrade PCP as it removed 75% PCP within 9 days than the bacterial consortium isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent showing only 60% removal within same


Bioreactor, Chemostat, Consortium, Enrichment, PCP removal. Tannery effluent.

Full Text:


Alexander, M. (1981) Blodegradation of chemicals of Environmental concern. Science, 211, 132-138.

Aneja, K.R. (2001) Experiments in Microbiology, Plant pathology, Tissue culture and Mushroom Production Technology. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater; 21^'ed. Amer. Pub. HIth. Assoc. Washington DC.

Brown, E.J., Pignatello, J.J., Martinson, M.M. and Crawford, R.L. (1986) Pentachlorophenol degradation: a pure bacterial culture and an epilithic microbial consortium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1, 92- 97.

Dercova, K., Certik, M., Malova, A. and Sejakova, Z. (2004) Effect of chlorophenols on the membrane lipids of bacterial cells. Intern. Biodeter Biod., 54, 251254.

Edgehill, R.U. and Finn, R.K. (1983a) Activated Shidge treatment of synthetic waste water containing pentachlorophenol. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 25, 2165-2176.

Edgehill, R.U. and Finn, R. (1983b) Microbial treatment of soil to remove Pentachlorophenol. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 45, 1122-1125.

Habash, M.S., Beaudette, L.A., Cassidy, M.B., Leung, K.T., Hoang, T.A., Vogel, H.J., Trevors, J.T. and Lee, H. (2002) Characterization of Tetracholorohydroquinone reductive dehalogenase from Sphingomonas sp. UG 30. Bioctiem. Biophy. Res. Commun.. 299, 634-640.

Karamanev, D.G. and Samson, R. (1998) High-rate biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by biofilm developed in the immobilized soil bioreactor. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 994-999.

Melin, E.S., Ferguson, J.F. and Puhakka, J.A. (1997) Pentachlorophenol biodegradation kinetics of an oligotrophic fluidized- bed enrichment culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 47, 675-682.

Melin, E.S., Janinen, K.T. and Puhakka, J.A. (1998a) Effects of temperature on chlorophenol biodegradation kinetics in fluidized-bed reactors with different biomass carriers. Wat. Res., 32, 8 1 90.

Melin, E.S., Puhakka, J.A. and Ferguson, J.F. (1998b) Enrichment and operation strategies for polychlorophenol degrading microbial cultures in an aerobic fluidized-bed reactor. Wat. Res., 70, 171-180.

Miller, M.N., Stratton, G.W. and Murray, G. (2004) Effects of soil moisture and aeration on the biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol contaminated soil. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 72, 101-108.

Murialdo, S.E., Fenogllo. R., Haure, P.M. and Gonzalez, J.F. (2003) Degradation of phenol and chlorophenols by mixed and pure cultures. Water S.A., 29, 457-463.

Nagyun, A., Martin, M., Shukia, S.S., Margrave, J.L. and Parga, J. (2002) Pentachlorophenol degradation by the bacteria Enterobacter cloacae. Res. J. Chemi. Environ., 6, 53-57.

Reyding, J.M., Puhakka, J.A., Strand, S.E. and Ferguson, J.F. (1994) Degradation of chlorinated phenols by a toluene enriched microbial culture. Wat. Res., 28, 1897-1906.

Seelay, H.W. and Van de Mark (1974) Microbes in Action. W.H. Freeman and Company.

Shukia, S., Sharma, R. and Thakur, I.S. (2001) Enrichment and characterization of Pentachlorophenol degrading microbial community for the treatment of tannery effluent. Poll. Res., 20, 353-363.

Slater, J.H. and Lovatt, D. (1984) Biodegradation and the significance of microbial communities. In: Gibson, D.T. (eds.) Microbial degradation of organic compounds. Marcel Dekker, New York, 439- 485.

Stanlake, G.J. and Finn, R.K. (1982) Isolation and characterization of Pentachlorophenol degrading bacterium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 44, 14211427.

Thakur, I.S. (1995) Structural and functional characterization of a stable, 4 chlorosalicylic acid degrading bacterial community in a chemostat. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 11, 643-645.

Thakur, I.S., Verma, RK. and Upadhaya, K.C. (2001) Involvement of plasmid in degradation of Pentachlorophenol by Pseudomonas sp. from chemostat. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun., 286, 109-113.

Thakur, I.S.. Verma, P.K. and Upadhaya, K.C. (2002) Molecular cloning and characterization of Pentachlorophenol degrading Monooxygenase genes of Pseudomonas sp. from the chemostat. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun., 290, 770-71 A.

Wang, Y.J., Ho, YS., Geng, J.H., Su, H.J. and Lee, C.C. (2000) Different cell death mechanisms and gene expression in human cells induced by Pentachlorophenol and its major metabolite, Tetracholorohydroquinone. Chemico-Biolog. Inter.. 128, 173-188.

Weinbach, E.G. and Garbus, J. (1965) The interaction of uncoupling phenols with mitochondria and mitochondrial proteins. J. Biol. Chem., 240,18111819.

Wolski, E.A., Murialdo, S.E. and Gonzalez, J.F (2006) Effect of pH and inoculum size on Pentachlorophenol degradation by Pseudomonas sp. Water S.A., 32, 1-5.

Yang, C.F., Lee, CM. and Wang, C.C. (2006) Isolation and physiological characterization of the Pentachlorophenol degrading bacterium Sphingomonas chlorophenolica. Chemos., 62, 709-714.

Yu, J. and Ward, O. (1996) Investigation of the biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol by the predominant bacterial strains in a mixed culture. Intern. Biodeter. Biodeg.. 181-187.


  • There are currently no refbacks.