Alteration in Antioxidant Biomolecules after the Exposure to Fluoride in Fresh Water Fish Heteropneustes fossilis

Jump To References Section


  • Department of Zoology, Aquatic Toxicology Research Laboratory, University of Lucknow, Lucknow UP – 226007, India ,IN
  • Department of Zoology, Aquatic Toxicology Research Laboratory, University of Lucknow, Lucknow UP – 226007, India ,IN



Antioxidants, Fluoride, GSH, LPO, SOD


Fluoride contamination in aquatic ecosystem has been recognized as one of the major problems worldwide and it is imposing a serious threat to aquatic organisms. It induces adverse physiological and biochemical effect in animals. The present study has been planned to observe toxic effect of Sodium fluoride on antioxidative biomarkers like LPO, SOD, and GSH in a fresh water catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Fish were exposed to two sub lethal concentrations of Sodium fluoride for 30 days. After exposure, fish were sacrificed for collection of tissues for biochemical assay. It was found that SOD, GSH decreased significantly while LPO increased significantly in treated fish as compared to control. Results indicate concentration dependent induction of oxidative stress and subsequent alternations in the activities of non enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants like LPO, GSH and SOD.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Singh, N., & Tripathi, M. (2017). Alteration in Antioxidant Biomolecules after the Exposure to Fluoride in Fresh Water Fish Heteropneustes fossilis. Journal of Ecophysiology and Occupational Health, 16(3-4), 66–71.



APHA, AWWA and WEF (2005) Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 21st Ed. American Public Health Association, Washington DC.

Bajpai, S. and Tripathi, M. (2012) Alteration in Pigmentation after Fluoride Exposure in Stinging Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). CibtechJournal of Zoology., ISSN: 2319-2012, 1.

Bajpai, S. Tripathi N, Tewari S and Tripathi, M. (2010) Retardation of Growth after Fluoride Exposure in Catfish,Heteropneustis fossilis (Bloch). Bioresources for Rural Livelihood., 1,167 -173.

Bajpai, S., Tewari, S. and Tripathi, M. (2009) Evaluation of Acute Toxicity Levels and Behavioural Responses of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) to Sodium Fluoride. Aquaculture, 10, 37-43.

Barbier, O., Mendoza, A. L and Razo, D. M. L. (2010) Molecular Mechanisms of Fluoride Toxicity. Chemico-Biological Interactions.,188, 319–333.

Basha, PM., Rai, P and Begum, S. (2011) Evaluation of Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain: A Multigeneration Study. Biological Trace Element Research., 142,623–637.

Basha, P.M. and Sujitha, N.S. (2012) Combined Influence of Intermittent Exercise and Temperature Stress on the Modulation of Fluoride Toxicity. Biol Trace Elem Res., 148, 69–75.

BÅ‚aszczyk, I., Grucka-Mamczar, E., Kasperczyk, S. and Birkner, E. (2008) Influence of Fluoride on Rat Kidney Antioxidant System: Effects of Methionine and Vitamin E. Biological Trace Element Research, 121, 51–59.

Buyukokuroglu, M.E., Taysi, S., Polat, F. and Gocer, F.(2002) Mechanism of the Beneficial Effects of Dantrolene Sodium on Ethanol–Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats. Pharmacol Res., 45, 421–425.

Camargo, J.A. (2003) Fluoride Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms: A Review. Chemosphere., 50, 251-264.

Chinoy, N. J., Narayana, M. V., Sequeira, E., Joshi, S. M., Barot, J. M., Purohit R. M. Parikh, D.J. and Godasar, N.B., (1992) Studies on Effects of Fluoride in 36 Villages of Mehsana District, North Gujarat. Fluoride., 25,101-10.

Colado, M.I., O'Shea, E., Granados, R., Misra, A., Murray, T.K. and Green, AR. (1997) A Study of the Neurotoxic Effect of MDMA ("Ectasy”) on 5-HT Neurones in the Brains of Mothers and Neonates Following Administration of the Drug during Pregnancy. Br J. Pharmacol., 121: 827–833.

Diamond, SR., Sultana, T., Servos, MR. and Metcalfe, C.D. (2016) Biological Responses to Contaminants in Darters (Etheostoma Spp.) Collected from Rural and Urban Regions of the rand River, ON, Canada. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.,199,126-35.

Dierickx, P.J. and DeBeer, J.O. (1983) Interaction of Fluoroacetamide With Rat Liver Glutathione S-Transferases: Evidence for Detoxification Roles by Defluorination. Fluoride., 16, 145-51.

Dobaradaran, S., Mahvi, A.H., Dehdashti, S., Dobaradaran,S.and Shoara, R. (2009) Correlation of Fluoride with Some Inorganic Constituents in Groundwater of Dashtestan, Iran. Fluoride, 42, 50-3.

Ellman, G.L. (1959) Tissue Sulfhydryl Groups. Arch Biochem Biophys, 82, 70-77.

Habig, W.H., Pabst, M.J. and Jakoby, W.B. (1974) GlutathioneS- Transferase: The First Enzymatic Step in Mercapturic Acid Formation. J Biol Chem, 249, 7130-7139.

Hai, D.Q., Varga, S.I. and Matkovics, B. (1997) Organophosphate Effects of Antioxidant System of Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) and Catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus). Comp Biochem Physiol, 117, 83–8.

Inkielewicz-Stepniak, I. and Czarnowski, W. (2010) Oxidative Stress Parameters in Rats Exposed to Fluoride and Caffeine. Food and Chemical Toxicology., 48, 1607–1611.

Kakkar, P., Das, B. and Viswanathan, P.N. (1984) A Modified Spectrophotometric Assay of Superoxide Dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys., 21,130-2.

Kanemautsu, S. and Asada, K. (1994) Superoxide Dismutase: In Molecular Aspects of Enzyme Catalysis (Ed T Faku and Soda) Kodansa Tokyo, 191-202.

Krechniak and Inkielewicz (2005) Correlations between Fluoride and Free Radical Parameters in Rats. Fluoride., 38, 293–296.

Kumar, A., Tripathi, N. and Tripathi, M (2007) Fluoride Induced Biochemical Changes in Fresh Water Catfish (Clarius batrachus , Linn). Fluoride., 40, 37-41.

Mahvi, A.H., Zazoli, M., Younecian, M., Nicpour, B. and Babapour, A. (2006) Survey of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water Sources and Prevalence of DMFT in the 12 Years Old Students in Behshar City. J Med Sci., 6, 658-61.

Mittal, M., and Flora, S.J. (2006) Effects of Individual and Combined Exposure to Sodium Arsenite and Sodium Fluoride on Tissue Oxidative Stress, Arsenic and Fluoride Levels in Male Mice. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 162, 128–139.

Nabavi, S.M., Habtemariam, S., Nabavi, S.F. Sureda, A., Daglia, M., Moghaddam, H. A. and Amani, A. M. (2013) Protective Effect of Gallic Acid Isolated from Peltiphyllum Peltatum Against Sodium Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat's Kidney.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry., 372,233–239.

Nabavi, S.M., Nabavi, S.F., Eslami, S., Moghaddam, S.and Hajizadeh, A. (2012) In Vivo Protective Effects of Quercetin Against Sodium Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Hepatic Tissue. Food Chemistry., 132, 931–935.

Ochoa-Herrera, V., Banihani, Q., León, G., Khatri, C., Field, J.A. and Sierra-Alvarez, R. (2009) Toxicity of Fluoride to Microorganisms in Biological Waste Water Treatment Systems. Water Res., 43, 3177–3186.

Oruc, E. (2011) Effects of Diazinon on Antioxidant Defense System and Lipid Peroxidation in the Liver of Cyprinus Carpio (L.). Environ Toxicol., 26,571–8.

Patel, D. and Chinoy, N.J. (1998) Influence of Fluoride on Biological Free Radical Reactions in Ovary of Mice and its Reversal. Fluoride, 31, S27.

Samanta, P., Pal, S., Mukherjee, A.K. and Ghosh, A.R. (2014) Biochemical Effects of Glyphosate Based Herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on Enzyme Activities of Acetylcholinesterase(Ache), Lipid Peroxidation (LPO), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione- S-Transferase (GST) and Protein Content on Teleostean Fishes. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety., 107, 120-125.

Shamsollahi, R. H., Zolghadr, Z., Mahvi, H. A., Hosseini, S. S. and Mossavic, N. S. (2015) The Effect of Temperature, Water Hardness, and Exposure Time on Fluoride Toxicity in the Aquatic Environment. Fluoride., 48, 338-344.

Shanthakumari, D., Srinivasalu,S. and Subramanian,S. (2004) Effect of Fluoride Intoxication on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Experimental Rats. Toxicology, 204, 214- 228.

Sharma, A. and Chinoy NJ (1998) Role of Free Radicals in Fluoride-Induced Toxicity in Liver and Kidney of Mice and its Reversal. Fluoride, 31, S26.

Shivarajashankara, Y.M., Shivashankara, A.R.,. Bhat, Gopalakrishna. P. and Hanumanth, Rao. (2002) Brain Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Systems of Young Rats in Chronic Fluoride Intoxication. Fluoride, 35, 197–203.

Sun, G., Qiu, L., Ding, G., Qian, C. and Zheng, Q.(1998) Effects of Beta-Carotene and SOD on Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Fluoride: An Experimental Study. Fluoride, 31, S29.

Tripathi, M. and Tripathi, A. (2005) Effect of Fluoride on Growth of Fingerlings of Channa punctatus. Flora and Fauna, 11, 111 -114.

Tripathi, M., Tripathi, A. and Gopal, K. (2005) Impact of Fluoride on Pigmentation of a Freshwater Fish Channa punctatus. J.Appl. Biosci., 31, 35-38.

Tripathi, N., Bajpai, S. and Tripathi M. (2009) Genotoxic Alterations Induced by Fluoride in Asian Catfish, Clarias batrachus (linn.) . Fluoride., 42, 292–296 Van, der. Oost. R., Beyer, J. and Vermeulen, N.P.E. (2003) Fish Bioaccumulation and Biomarkers in Environmental Risk Assessment: A Review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13, 57–149.

Vani, M.L. and Reddy, K.P. (2000) Effects of Fluoride Accumulation on Some Enzymes of Brain and Gastrocnemius Muscle of Mice. Fluoride., 33, 17-26.

Viarengo, A., Lowe, D., Bolognesi, C., Fabbri, E. and Koehler, A. (2007) The use of Biomarkersin Biomonitoring: A 2-Tier Approach Assessing the Level of Pollutant-Induced Stress Syndrome in Sentinel Organisms. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology., 146C, 281–300.

Yadav, S.S., Kumar, R., Khare, P. and Tripathi, M. (2015) Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) Exposed to Sodium Fluoride: Antioxidant Defense and Role of Ascorbic Acid. Toxicology International., 22, 71