Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Through Multi‑Biomarker Analysis and Possible Correlation with Food Consumption Patterns


Affiliations

  • Jean Lorougnon Guédé University, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Daloa, Côte d'Ivoire
  • National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), Bari, Italy
  • Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire,, Department of Epidemiology, Paris, France
  • Nangui Abrogoua University, Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
  • National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), Bari, France

Abstract

Scope: The aim of the presented study was to investigate the mycotoxin exposure of Ivorian population related to the consumption patterns of maize, peanuts, millet, and cassava product (attiéké). Materials and Methods: Maize flour samples (n = 51) were purchased from all Abidjan local markets, in the south of Ivory Coast, and urine (n = 99) was collected during the same reference period (July–September 2011) from volunteers living in Abidjan and Daloa cities. Reversed‑phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC‑ESI‑MS/MS) was used to analyze aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1, FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and T‑2 and HT‑2 toxins in maize flour samples, and their relevant biomarkers (AFM1, DON, DON + de‑epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM‑1), FB1, α‑zearalenol (ZOL), β‑ZOL, and OTA) in urine samples. Results: Critical maize contamination was observed by AFs occurrence (total AFs 4.5 – 330.0 μg/kg) while OTA was found in 13% of samples analyzed. AFM1 was detected in 40% of urines samples (0.06 – 14.11 ng/ml), OTA in 37% (0.01 – 0.42 ng/ml), FB1 in 27% (0.07 to 15.31 ng/ml) and, DON was found in 21% of samples at levels up to 10.0 ng/ml. The correlation coefficients (R2) obtained by plotting the percentage of biomarker occurrence (positive samples) versus the frequency of food consumption revealed maize, peanuts, millet and attiéké were strongly linked to AFB1 and OTA exposure with values of R2 ranged from 0.462 to 0.956. Conclusion: The present study provided data on mycotoxin risk in Ivory Coast, revealing a frequent co‑exposure to the major mycotoxins such as AFs, OTA, and fumonisins, which appeared to be related to the frequency of peanuts, maize, millet and attiéké consumption.

Keywords

Human exposure, Ivory Coast, mycotoxins, multi‑biomarker, maize‑foods

Subject Discipline

Botany

Full Text:

References

Manda P, Dano SD, Kouadio JH, Diakité A, Sangaré‑Tigori B, Ezoulin MJ, et al. Impact of industrial treatments on ochratoxin A content in artificially contaminated cocoa beans. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2009;26:1081‑8.

Dano DS, Manda P, Kouadio JH, Dembélé AA, Diakité A. Incidence of roasting on ochratoxin A residue in coffee. Eur J Sci Res 2009;26:393‑401.

Dembele A, Coulibaly A, Traoré SK, Mamadou K, Silue N, Abba Touré A. Assessment of cocoa beans from Ivory Coast contamination level by ochratoxin A intended to exportation. Tropicultura 2009;27:26‑30.

Sangare‑Tigori B, Moukha S, Kouadio HJ, Betbeder AM, Dano DS, Creppy EE. Co‑occurrence of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in cereals and peanuts from Cote d’Ivoire. Food Addit Contam 2006;23:1000‑7.

Sangare‑Tigori B, Dem AA, Kouadio HJ, Betbeder AM, Dano DS, Moukha S, et al. Preliminary survey of ochratoxin A in millet, maize, rice and peanuts in Cote d’Ivoire from 1998 to 2002. Hum Exp Toxicol 2006;25:211‑6.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official J Eur Union 2006;L364/5.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards Fusarium toxins in maize and maize products. Official J Eur Union 2007;255/14.

Commission Recommendation of 27 March 2013 on the presence of T‑2 and HT‑2 toxin in cereals and cereal products. Official J Eur Union 2013;L91/12.

Jimoh KO, Kolapo AL. Mycoflora and aflatoxin production in market samples of some selected Nigerian foodstuffs. Res J Microbiol 2008;3:169‑74.

Oluwafemi F, Nnanna II. Microbial contamination of seven major weaning foods in Nigeria. J Health Popul Nutr 2011;29:415‑9.

Adejumo TO, Hettwer U, Karlovsky P. Survey of maize from south‑western Nigeria for zearalenone, alpha‑ and beta‑zearalenols, fumonisin B1 and enniatins produced by Fusarium species. Food Addit Contam 2007;24:993‑1000.

Zhu JQ, Zhang LS, Hu X, Xiao Y, Chen JS, Xu YC, et al. Correlation of dietary aflatoxins B1 levels with excretion of aflatoxins M1 in human urine. Cancer Res 1987;47:1848‑52.

Romero AC, Ferreira TR, Dias CT, Calori‑Domingues MA, Gloria EM. Occurrence of AFM1 in urine samples of a Brazilian population and association with food consumption. Food Control 2009;21:554‑8.

Jolly P, Jiang Y, Ellis W, Awuah R, Nnedu O, Phillips T, et al. Determinants of aflatoxin levels in Ghanaians: Sociodemographic factors, knowledge of aflatoxin and food handling and consumption practices. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2006;209:345‑58.

Meky FA, Turner PC, Ashcroft AE, Miller JD, Qiao YL, Roth MJ, et al. Development of a urinary biomarker of human exposure to deoxynivalenol. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41:265‑73.

Turner PC, Hopton RP, White KL, Fisher J, Cade JE, Wild CP. Assessment of deoxynivalenol metabolite profiles in UK adults. Food Chem Toxicol 2011;49:132‑5.

Turner PC, Hopton RP, Lecluse Y, White KL, Fisher J, Lebailly P. Determinants of urinary deoxynivalenol and de‑epoxy deoxynivalenol in male farmers from Normandy, France. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58:5206‑12.

Turner PC, White KL, Burley VJ, Hopton RP, Rajendram A, Fisher J, et al. A comparison of deoxynivalenol intake and urinary deoxynivalenol in UK adults. Biomarkers 2010;15:553‑62.

Scott PM. Biomarkers of human exposure to ochratoxin A. Food Addit Contam 2005;22:99‑107.

van Der Westhuizen L, Shephard GS, Burger HM, Rheeder JP, Gelderblom WC, et al. Fumonisin B1 as a urinary biomarker of exposure in a maize intervention study among South African subsistence farmers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011;20:483‑9.

Gong YY, Torres‑Sanchez L, Lopez‑Carrillo L, Peng JH, Sutcliffe AE, White KL, et al. Association between tortilla consumption and human urinary fumonisin B1 levels in a mexican population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:688‑94.

Xu L, Cai Q, Tang L, Wang S, Hu X, Su J, et al. Evaluation of fumonisin biomarkers in a cross‑sectional study with two high‑risk populations in China. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2010;27:1161‑9.

Bandera EV, Chandran U, Buckley B, Lin Y, Isukapalli S, Marshall I, et al. Urinary mycoestrogens, body size and breast development in New Jersey girls. Sci Total Environ 2011;409:5221‑7.

Abia AW, Warth B, Sulyok M, Krska R, Tchana A, Njobeh PB, et al. Bio‑monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi‑biomarker approach. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;62:927‑34.

Solfrizzo M, Gambacorta L, Visconti A. Assessment of multi‑mycotoxin exposure in southern Italy by urinary multi‑biomarker determination. Toxins 2014;6:523‑38.

Sangare‑Tigori B, Moukha S, Kouadio JH, Dano DS, Betbeder AM, Achour A, et al. Ochratoxin A in human blood in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Toxicon 2006;47:894‑900.

Lattanzio VM, Solfrizzo M, Powers S, Visconti A. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins in maize by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after multitoxin immunoaffinity cleanup. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2007;21:3253‑61.

Solfrizzo M, Gambacorta L, Lattanzio VM, Powers S, Visconti A. Simultaneous LC‑MS/MS determination of aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, de‑epoxydeoxynivalenol, α and β‑zearalenols and fumonisin B1 in urine as a multi‑biomarker method to assess exposure to mycotoxins. Anal Bioanal Chem 2011;401:2831‑41.

Adejumo O, Atanda O, Raiola A, Somorin Y, Bandyopadhyay R, Ritieni A. Correlation between aflatoxin M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in Ogun State, Nigeria. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;56:171‑7.

Abia WA, Wart B, Sulyok M, Ksrka R, Tchana AN, Njobeh PB, et al. Determination of multi‑mycotoxin occurrence in cereals, nuts and their products in Cameroon by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC‑MS/MS). Food Control 2013;31:438‑53.

Njobeh PB, Dutton MF, Kock SH, Chuturgoon AA, Stoev SD, Mosonik JS. Simultaneous occurrence of mycotoxins in human food commodities from Cameroon. Mycotoxin Res 2010;26:47‑57.

Warth B, Parich A, Atehnkeng J, Bandyopadhyay R, Schumacher R, Sulyok M, et al. Quantitation of mycotoxins in food and feed from Burkina Faso and Mozambique using a modern LC‑MS/MS multitoxin method. J Agric Food Chem 2012;60:9352‑63.

Fandohan P, Zoumenou D, Hounhouigan DJ, Marasas WF, Wingfield MJ, Hell K. Fate of aflatoxins and fumonisins during the processing of maize into food products in Benin. Int J Food Microbiol 2005;98:249‑59.

Obuseh FA, Jolly PE, Jiang Y, Shuaib FM, Waterbor J, Ellis WO, et al. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2010;80:355‑68.

Polychronaki N, Christopher P, Wild C, Hannu M, Hassan A, Mosaad A, et al. Urinary biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Egypt and Guinea. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:519‑26.

Gong YY, Cardwell K, Hounsa A, Egal S, Turner PC, Hall AJ, et al. Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Benin and Togo: Cross sectional study. BMJ 2002;325:20‑1.

Gong YY, Egal S, Hounsa A, Turner PC, Hall AJ, Cardwell KF, et al. Determinants of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa; the critical role of weaning. Int J Epidemiol 2003;32:556‑62.

Gnonlonfin GJ, Adjovi CS, Katerere DR, Shephard GS, Sanni A, Brimer L. Mycoflora and absence of aflatoxin contamination of commercialized cassava chips in Benin, West Africa. Food Control 2012;23:333‑7.

Adjovi YC, Bailly S, Gnonlonfin BJ, Tadrist S, Querin A, Sanni A, et al. Analysis of the contrast between natural occurrence of toxigenic Aspergilli of the Flavi section and aflatoxin B1 in cassava. Food Microbiol 2014;38:151‑9.

Shephard GS, Burger HM, Gambacorta L, Gong YY, Krska R, Rheeder JP, et al. Multiple mycotoxin exposure determined by urinary biomarkers in rural subsistence farmers in the former Transkei, South Africa. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;62:217‑25.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.