Evaluation of the Genoprotective Effect of Polyphenolic, Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous Extracts of Red Apple
Apple has a tremendous supply of minerals, vitamins C, B Group and phenolic compounds. It has antioxidant properties and maintains genetic content against oxidative stress. In animal experiments, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) has demonstrated genotoxic effects. In this study, the genoprotective effects versus the MMS genotoxicity of red apple extracts were investigated. Red apples (Red Delicious cultivar) were chopped in thin slices and three types of extracts consisting polyphenolic, hydroalcoholic and aqueous were taken. Lymphocytes were pre-incubated with various concentrations of extracts and then were exposed to 10μM of MMS. This was made possible by using alkaline comet assay and analysis of comet images. The total phenolic content (TPC) for polyphenolic, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained 127.74 ± 4.26, 118.12 ± 4.47 and 84.79 ± 4.26 mg/g, respectively. The extracts consisted of 48.92 ± 1.02, 42.09 ± 3.36, 29.08 ± 3.23 mg/g of total flavonoid (TF). The results illustrated that in genoprotective concentrations of 1, 10 and 100μg/ml for all these extracts, the tail length and tail moment variables were significantly lower than the positive control (10μM of MMS) (p< 0.05). In this study, results revealed that these extracts were able to protect lymphocytes against MMS. By considering the TPC and TF values, the polyphenolic and hydroalcoholic extracts had more genoprotective activity compared to the aqueous extract. The polyphenolic extract was proved to be the most protective extract of all.
Comet Assay, DNA Damage, Methyl Methanesulfonate, Malus domestica.
Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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