Journal of Natural Remedies <div id="i-scholarabout"><img class="media-object" style="width: 222px; float: left; margin: 0px 16px 15px 20px;" src="" /> <p style="margin-left: 261px;"><strong>Editor :</strong> Dr. M. K. Mohan Maruga Raja<br /><strong>Online ISSN :</strong> 2320-3358<br /><strong>Print ISSN :</strong> 0972-5547<br /><strong>Frequency :</strong> Quaterly<br /><strong>Publisher/s :</strong> Informatics Publishing Limited, Natural Remedies</p> <br /><strong><em>Nature</em></strong> can provide all the <strong><em>remedies</em></strong>, for all. All substances produced by nature can be recognized; all cells talk the same language as we all are from the same mother cell. <strong><em>Journal of Natural Remedies</em></strong> is devoted toward the understandings of all remedies from nature.<br /><br /><strong><em>Journal of Natural Remedies</em></strong> publishes original articles related to utilisation of any natural source for remedy including bioactive natural products. Studies related to the resources, chemistry (including analytical), biological activity, biotechnology and pharmacology (including toxicology) of archaea, bacteria, protistas, fungi, plants, animals, viruses and minerals fall within the journal's scope.</div> <p>The journal welcomes investigations on products related to traditional system of medicines (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and other systems of past and present cultures), Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM), homeopathy, indigenous remedies, folklore medicines and functional foods.</p> <p>The Journal of Natural Remedies (JNR) is a Quarterly Journal and is <br /><span style="color: blue;">Indexed in Scopus with <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0">H Index</a> 19, IndMed, Web of Science BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, <a href=";" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> U. S. National Library of Medicine</a>, UGC-CARE List Group II, Index Copernicus , CABI, ICI </span></p> <p id="homecontent"><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a> <a href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> <a href="">Informatics Publishing Limited</a> and <a href="">Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd</a> en-US Journal of Natural Remedies 0972-5547 Herbs as Antidote for Snake Bite Treatment- Traditional Practices and Its Future Prospects- A Review Snake bite is a life-threatening neglected tropical infection reporting high mortality across the world including India. Out of the available yearly statistics of this occupational hazard caused 4.5-5.4 million people and nearly 1,38,000 fatalities were reported globally. Several factors such as the low availability of antivenom, inadequate health centres in rural areas, poor transportation facilities affected the higher number of morbidity and mortality cases of snake bite. The prognostic and diagnostic approach towards the snake bite infection is difficult due to its complexity in venom. The conventional therapy is polyvalent antivenom derived from horses or sheep, with its limitations. The traditional physicians use plants and other herbs as its sustainable remedy for snake bite treatment. Nearly, 523 plant species from 122 families reported their neutralizing property against toxic venom. The secondary metabolites extracted from plants, are capable of reducing the toxic effects of the venom. Many research works has been reported the inhibitory potential of the plant compounds against the snake venom enzymes. Therefore, there is a necessity for increasing therapeutic studies on plant metabolites and the development of an antidote for the better treatment of snakebite. This review article discusses various herbal plant used for snake bite in India. R. S. David Paul Raj Alina Ann Mathew T. Jesse Joel R. Beena Kanimozhi H. Agnes Preethy Copyright (c) 2022 David Paul Raj R S, Alina Ann Mathew, Jesse Joel T, Beena Kanimozhi R, Agnes Preethy H 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 269 290 10.18311/jnr/2022/28405 <i>Dugdhika</i>: Present Scenario in Perspective of Taxonomy and Ayurveda In the present scenario, many botanical sources of plants are used in the name of <em>Dugdhika</em>. This article aims at reviewing all such botanical species used worldwide. Ayurveda classical literature, Peer reviewed journals, Various Online databases and search engines such as PubMed, DHARA, Google scholar and Ayush research portal were used and data were analyzed for collecting all such useful information. 5 botanical species were identified which are used in the name of <em>Dugdhika</em> with some slight change in their Vernacular names. Though different botanical species are used all over world in the name of <em>Dugdhika</em>, They all possesses somewhat similar pharmacognostical and Pharmacological properties, so these botanical species can be used as <em>Pratinidhi dravyas</em> (substitute of each other). Dattatray D. Sarvade Kamini B. Bhingardive Mohanlal Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2022 DATTATRAY D SARVADE, KAMINI B BHINGARDIVE, MOHANLAL JAISWAL 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 291 301 10.18311/jnr/2022/30164 Ayurvedic Management of Diabetic Macular Oedema — DME (<i>Sannipataja timira</i>) — A Case Report <strong>Background:</strong> Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is the primary cause of visual loss in Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). The hyperglycemic state promotes the activation of multiple interlinked pathways leading to DME. The current guidelines in contemporary science recommend Anti VEG-F injections as the first line of treatment for this condition. Repeated Anti-VEG-F injections cause much financial burden on the patient and their family, at the cost of minimal visual outcome. From the signs and symptoms, it was diagnosed as <em>Sannipataja timira</em> according to Ayurveda. A 53-year-old male patient sought Ayurvedic treatment when his vision in the right eye did not improve after the injection of Accentrix for DME. His ophthalmologist advised him to repeat the injection after six months but did not assure him of complete resolution of edema. So, he opted for Ayurvedic treatment. His treatment comprised internal medicines consisting of <em>Punarnavadi kashaya, Guduchyadi kashaya, Chandraprabha vati, Gomutra haritaki lehya</em>; external treatments like <em>Talpodichil</em> with <em>Punarnavadi churna</em> and <em>Pratimarsha nasya</em> with <em>Anu taila</em>; <em>Kriyakalpas</em> (eye treatments) like <em>Vidalaka</em> and<em> Anjana karma</em>. At the end of 7.5 months of Ayurvedic treatment, his visual acuity improved from 6/60 to 6/6. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) affirmed the full resolution of DME. Ayurvedic treatment effectively reversed the process of macular edema, thereby bringing about marked visual outcomes in DME. Such patients shall be encouraged to go for Ayurvedic treatments, not the expensive and invasive Anti-VEGF injections. K. Shanti R. S. Remya Copyright (c) 2022 K. Shanti 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 363 370 10.18311/jnr/2022/28782 Urolithiasis: HPTLC Method for Quantitative Detection of Rutin and Quercetin in an Herbal Plant Anti-inflammatory, Hypoglycemic, Hepatoprotective, Antihyperlipidemic, Anti-Ulcerative, Cardioprotective Stimulant, Sedative, Hypnotic, Anticonvulsant Activity, Memory Retention, Stroke Preventive Activity, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimycobacterial, Antiviral, Larvicidal, Antiparasitic, Chemopreventative, Chemo-modulatory, Anticancer, Cytoprotective activities were found in a variety of herbal plants, including <em>Ocimum basilicum</em>. The purpose of this study was to design and develop a new HPTLC method that was accurate, precise and cost-effective for simultaneous measurement of rutin and quercetin in a hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Ocimum basilicum</em> seeds. The mobile phase was Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Methanol: formic acid (6:4:3:1, v/v/v/v/v) and densitometric scanning was performed at 254 nm. Merck TLC aluminium sheets of silica gel 60 F254, (10 x 10 cm) with a thickness of 250 mm was used as stationary phase. At a wavelength of 254 nm, rutin and quercetin were detected. The constituents were resolved satisfactorily, with Rf values of 0.25 ± 2.01 for rutin and 0.80 ± 0.64 for quercetin, respectively. Linearity (300-1300 ng/spot for rutin and quercetin) was used to test the method’s accuracy and reproducibility. For both analytes, intra- and inter-day precision, as evaluated by coefficient of variation, was less than 3%. For rutin, the detection and quantification limits were 46.52 and 140.96 ng/spot, respectively, and for quercetin, they were 81.79 and 247.84 ng/spot. The proposed approach was found to be precise, accurate, repeatable, and specific, and it could be used to measure quercetin and rutin in samples at the same time. Patel Ravindrakumar Niraj Vyas Patel Sandip Copyright (c) 2022 Niraj Yashvantrai Vyas, Ravindrakumar Patel, Sandip Patel 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 371 379 10.18311/jnr/2022/29339 HPLC Quantification and Stability Study of Antilipidemic Polyherbal Formulation Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factor for cardio vascular disorders, which accounts for the one third of total death in the world. In the present study an Antilipidemic polyherbal formulation was prepared and contains four herbal drugs namely <em>Murraya koenigi</em> leaves, <em>Acacia catechu</em> bark, <em>Emblica officinalis</em> fruits and leaves of <em>Gymnema sylvestra</em>. The study involved HPLC marker-based quantification and shelf-life evaluation of a traditional Antilipidemic formulation. The quantification method for the biomarkers present in the polyherbal formulation was developed using reverse phase method by using shim-pack HPLC C<sub>18</sub> column (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 ?m). The four phytoconstituents selected for the study are mahanine, quercetin, gallic acid and gymnemic acid respectively. The percentage content of quercetin, gallic acid, gymnemic acid and mahanine in the PHF was found to be 0.82%w/w,10.15%w/w, 2.77%w/w and 14.19%w/w respectively. Shelf life is an important component that is mandatory to be displayed on the label of all medicinal products. This is also applicable to Ayurveda. The shelf life of polyherbal formulations is also assessed in this study using an accelerated stability analysis. At a temperature of 40.2 °C and a relative humidity of 75%, physicochemical parameters were measured. The analysis was repeated at 1, 3, and 6-month intervals, with the average 10% deterioration time calculated and extrapolated to determine the shelf life. It was found that the shelf life of formulated Antilipidemic polyherbal formulation was 2 years 2 months. The polyherbal formulation prepared and evaluated can be effectively used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the preparation can be used without any deterioration for a period of 2 years. Smitha Rani S. L. Manju Copyright (c) 2022 Smitha rani, Dr. Manju Sreedharan Nair Leelabai Amma 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 380 392 10.18311/jnr/2022/29013 Pharmacological Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulation for Nephroprotective Activity The kidney plays an essential role in removing waste products and drugs from the body and maintaining balanced body fluids. It gets affected due to many factors, notably, diabetes and high blood pressure. Nowadays, naturally, derived products are essential in curing various ailments and are safe and cost-effective. The purpose of this study is to assess the toxicity profile and nephroprotective effect of a proprietary polyherbal formulation in Wistar albino rats for gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The Polyherbal formulation was procured from Rumi Herbals Private Limited. Acute toxicity experiments were conducted in Wistar rats using the Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity model as per OECD standards 423, and the efficacy was assessed using the Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity model. The formulation was proven safe up to 2000mg/kg orally in an acute toxicity study, with no behavioral abnormalities and no fatality. The gentamicin 80 mg/kg i.p for 7 days induced nephrotoxicity in rats showed a significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in the renal parameters and reduction in antioxidant levels compared with day 0. Whereas test drug-treated groups at a low dose (200 mg/kg) and high dose (400 mg/kg) showed significant (P&lt;0.05) reduction in elevated renal parameters and improvement in antioxidant levels compared with the disease control group. According to the histopathological interpretation of isolated kidneys, this formulation protects from kidney damage and restores typical kidney architecture. From the results, the proprietary polyherbal formulation has shown effective nephroprotective activity may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites/phytoconstituents. Further investigation is essential to focus on the mechanism involved and standardize the active phytoconstituents responsible for the nephroprotective activity. P. Thirugnanasambantham V. Sharmila Devi N. Jayshree M. Sumithra R. Ilavarasan Copyright (c) 2022 Thirugnanasambantham P, Sharmila Devi Veeraswamy, Jayshree Narayanan, Sumithra Mohan, Ilavarasan Raju 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 393 411 10.18311/jnr/2022/29789 Formulation, Standardization, and Preclinical Evaluation of Polyherbal Suspension against Inflammatory Bowel Disease The pharmacological healing for inflammatory bowel diseases continues to be uncertain and requires immediate therapeutic interventions. A poly-herbal formulation obtained from a traditional and authentic classic text of Ayurveda was assessed for its effect against IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) in this study. The formulated poly-herbal suspension comprises three different drugs namely, Burma dhaniya (<em>Eryngium foetidum</em>), Sapota (<em>Manilkara zapota</em>), and Curry leaves (<em>Murraya koenigii</em>). The formulated suspension was evaluated for certain standard parameters like organoleptic and accelerated stability studies at various temperatures. It was checked for its efficacy by oral route in acetic acid-induced colitis affected Balb/c mice. Mice were orally administered with formulated suspension (275 mg/kg, 550 mg/kg,), every 24 hours for 10 days. Histopathology, macroscopic damage score, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and red blood cell parameters were evaluated after treatment. Reduction in the MPO activity, decrease in the macroscopic damage scores, and an increase in RBC cell count were seen distinctly at a high dose of 550 mg/Kg. The results obtained, established the effectiveness of the poly-herbal suspension against inflammatory bowel disease by treating the mice from acetic acid-induced colitis by reducing inflammation and oxidative damage to the colon. The maximum therapeutic effective activity was found to be 550 mg/kg for IBD mice. Prerna Dubey Rukaiah Fatma Begum V. Chitra R. Mrinalini Harini Gunasekaran M. Sumithra Copyright (c) 2022 Prerna Dubey, Rukaiah Fatma Begum, Chitra V, Harini Gunasekaran, Sumithra M 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 412 423 10.18311/jnr/2022/29781 Antimicrobial Activity of Curcumin and Deuterated Curcumin Deuterium (D) and hydrogen (H) are bioisosteres because they are similar in size and shape with alike physiochemical properties and hence expect similar biological activity. The purpose of replacing H with D is to extend the time the active drug species spends in plasma, resulting in increased effectiveness and/or the avoidance of unwanted side effects. Deutetrabenazine was the first deuterated medicinal molecule, recently authorized by the FDA for the treatment of chorea “an involuntary movement disorder” associated with tardive dyskinesia and Huntington’s disease. Curcumin is found to have a long history of use in human disorders such as inflammation, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, anxiety, antimicrobial, hyperlipidemia, etc., Curcumin’s oral bioavailability and water solubility are low, resulting in poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and systemic elimination. To overcome curcumin’s drawbacks, H/D exchange was performed in curcumin, which was then characterized and tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-tubercular activities. The deuterated compound showed equipotent antibacterial activity when compared with the non-deuterated compound and had better anti-fungal, anti-tubercular activity compared to its parent compound. G. V. Anjana M. K. Kathiravan Copyright (c) 2022 Anjana G V, Kathiravan M K 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 424 431 10.18311/jnr/2022/29686 Phytochemical Analysis by HR-LCMS and <i>In vitro</i> Anti-diabetic Potential of <i>Michelia champaca</i> Bark The current analysis was aimed to study the phytochemical profile and<em> in vitro</em> antidiabetic capacity of HEMC bark. HR-LCMS<sup>1</sup> was used to identify the phytochemicals present in the extract. The outcomes of HR-LCMS showed the presence of 15 phytochemical compounds. DL-Carnitine, Catechin, D-β-Tocopherol, Colchicine, Myricetin, Epicatechin, Quercetin, Epigallocatechin gallate, Quercetin-3β-D-glucoside, Kaempferol, Sorbic acid, Apocynin, Epigallocatechin gallate, myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, Naringeninchalcone are the main compounds identified. The inhibition of enzymes like β-amylase and β-glucosidase delays the rate of glucose absorption thus reducing blood glucose levels in the experimental models. The IC50 values of β-amylase and β-glucosidase inhibitory activity of HEMC were acquired to be 88.65 ?g/mL and 71.28 ?g/mL correspondingly. Positive control acarbose displayed IC50 assessment of 52.94 ?g/mL and 50.01 ?g/mL correspondingly. Consequently, the current study confirms that HEMC had remarkable antidiabetic activity and hence holds future potential as nutraceuticals in the treatment of diabetes and related ailments. Segu Prathyusha Malarkodi Velraj Copyright (c) 2022 Malarkodi Velraj 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 432 439 10.18311/jnr/2022/29798 Spectrophotometric Methods for the Analysis of Berberine Hydrochloride and Eugenol in Formulated Emulgel The present work describes three spectrophotometric methods for determining two phytoconstituent berberine hydrochloride and eugenol in formulated gels: simultaneous equation method, absorbance correction, and zero-crossing derivative method. In the simultaneous equation method, the absorbance at 263 nm and 280 nm and the absorbance correction method at 345 nm and 280 nm were measured and applied to their respective equation for the estimation of berberine hydrochloride and eugenol in phosphate buffer and formulated emulgel. The amplitudes of the first derivative spectra were measured at 252.5 nm for berberine hydrochloride and 263.5 nm for eugenol in zero-crossing crossing derivative spectrophotometry. For berberine hydrochloride and eugenol, linearity was attained in the concentration ranges of 4–20 and 2–10 µg/ml, respectively. Validation shows the applicability of the above procedures for the quantitative determination of berberine hydrochloride and eugenol. As a result, the presented method sucessfully estimated the aforesaid active phytoconstituent in formulated emulgel, with no interference from excipients. Aarti S. Zanwar Dhanya B. Sen Muskan Memon Ronak Sanathra Dhurvi Patel Rajesh A. Maheshwari Ashim K. Sen Copyright (c) 2022 Aarti S Zanwar, Dhanya B Sen, Muskan Memon, Ronak Sanathra, Rajesh A Maheswari, Ashim K Sen 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 440 448 10.18311/jnr/2022/30166 Novel Therapeutic Intervention using Coenzyme Q10 and Insulin Sensitizer on Experimentally- Initiated Diabetic Neuropathy Diabetes is one of the main disease having many repercussions due to which there is a huge economic burden globally. Therefore, there is a need of good therapeutic intervention by using some nutraceuticals to combat this dreadful disease especially complications such as diabetic neuropathy where patients suffer from severe pain and disability. Therefore, nutraceuticals like coenzyme Q10 and metformin were used in this study to see how they are effective in alleviating the symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The animal experiments were conducted to induce neuropathy by using streptozotocin-nicotinamide. Animals were divided into five groups such as control, diabetic control, coenzyme Q10, metformin, and their combination. The nerve function test was conducted by using paw withdrawal response, tail-flick response, and muscular grip strength. Antioxidant parameters were assessed by estimating such MDA, SOD, and GSH. The sciatica nerve was isolated and a histopathological examination was conducted. Neuropathy was assessed in diabetic control animals which showed a substantial decrease in grip strength, increase in the paw withdrawal, and tail-flick response. It was found that there was a rapid improvement in nerve function test when a combination of coenzyme Q10 and metformin was given together as compared to animals given coenzyme Q10 and metformin alone. From this study, it is shown that combination therapy exhibited a better improvement in the nerve function test and control of the free radical generation which ultimately results in nerve damage. Rajesh A. Maheshwari Ramachandran Balaraman Ashim Kumar Sen Umang Shah Kinjal P. Patel Dhanya B. Sen Copyright (c) 2022 Rajesh A. Maheshwari, Ramachandran Balaraman, Ashim Kumar Sen, Kinjal P Patel, Dhanya B. Sen 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 449 456 10.18311/jnr/2022/30085 Computational Investigation of Plant-based Bioactive Compounds as Inhibitors against Tuberculosis The objective of the work is to identify a natural origin compound that could have an anti-tubercular effect, thereby preventing the infection in humans using computational approach. Our focus was to find a inhibitor for Enoylacyl carrier reductase enzyme and hence chemically diverse scaffolds from plants origin were selected. Admet parameters were performed for the compounds, and the top nine compounds among 50 compounds were found to be non-carcinogenic. The pharmacological predicted activity (Pa) of few compounds such as 14-Deoxy-11,12 didehydroandrographolide, Terflavin B, and Liquirtin was found to be more active when compared with that of the standard reference. Further more the synthesis of these active compounds derivatives can be investigated theoretical followed by its synthesis and evaluation by <em>in vitro</em> activity against the<em> InhA</em> could be of interest. L. S. Dhivya M. K. Mohan Maruga Raja M. K. Kathiravan Copyright (c) 2022 DHIVYA L S 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 457 471 10.18311/jnr/2022/30194 Therapeutic Potential of Godhuma (<i>Triticum aestivum</i> L.) (Bread Wheat) as Ahara and Ausadha Across the Brhatrayis (Classical Ayurvedic Texts) — A Review Ayurveda has two primary targets, one is to maintain the health of the healthy and the other to treat the sick and bereaved. To be precise, it is equally beneficial in preventive and curative aspects. As far as Ayurveda is concerned, Ahara (Diet) and Ausadha (medicine) are two sides of the same coin. Some diseases can be managed with Ahara alone, some with Ausadha. But even when Ausadha is the primary intervention, Ahara plays an equally important role because it supports the ausadha. Godhuma (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.); is one such dravya that is considered as Pathyahara (suitable to the condition) in numerous diseases out of which Prameha (Diabetes) is just one. But what is not known is that it has also been extensively recommended as ausadha in several diseases across the texts. In the Brhatrayis- Charaka Samhita by Acarya Charaka, Susruta Samhita by Acarya Susruta, Astanga Sangraha and Astanga Hrdaya by Acarya Vaghbhata, the wide spectrum of pharmacological applications of Godhuma have been elaborated, indicating it to be a very therapeutically potential dravya. In modern pharmacology, the properties, and applications of <em>Triticum aestivum</em> L. are very well researched and documented, specifically its importance as a primary diet in a diabetic. But the therapeutic potential from the Ayurvedic point of view has never been reviewed before. This review article targets to fill this void, by presenting the therapeutic indications of Godh?ma mentioned in the Brhatrayis. M. Sujithra K. S. Vimala S. Priya Copyright (c) 2022 Dr Sujithra M, Dr Vimala KS, Dr Priya S 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 303 309 10.18311/jnr/2022/28219 Overview of Effective Traditional Medicinal Plants having Antihyperlipidemic Activity Hyperlipidemia is characterized by excessive levels of lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) in the blood. Elevated plasma concentrations of distinct lipid and lipoprotein fractions are key risk factors for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Natural ingredients have long been used to treat and prevent cardiovascular issues. Much research on natural compounds that are effective against hyperlipidemia has been done in recent decades as of interest. PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Scopus are the search engines used to collect information. We picked anti-hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and therapeutic plants as search terms. The goal of this article is to offer a rapid summary of herbal treatments used to treat and prevent atherosclerosis based on anti-hyperlipidemic action. This research aimed to analyze the anti-hyperlipidemic effectiveness of medicinal plants that have been scientifically demonstrated to be helpful. Sireesha Rayadurgam K. Manikandan Copyright (c) 2022 Sireesha Rayadurgam, Manikandan K 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 310 317 10.18311/jnr/2022/29791 Anti-ulcer Activities of Herbal Remedies as Alternative Therapy Peptic ulcer is a disorder that commonly has an effect on the digestive system. It is a chronic illness which has impact on approximately, 10% of the mankind. The majority of current therapy regimens are based on western medicine. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonists, which are commonly used to treat peptic ulcers, have been linked to side effects, relapses, and drug interactions. However, several investigations have shown that herbal medications can efficiently heal stomach ulcers in humans and animals using different processes. As a result, this review will focus on common plants with medicinal value which can be utilized to cure or prevent peptic ulcers. Dhanya B. Sen Ashim Kumar Sen Kinjal P. Patel Ramachandran Balaraman Umang Shah Rajesh A. Maheshwari Copyright (c) 2022 Dhanya B. Sen, Ashim Kumar Sen, Kinjal P. Patel, Ramachandran Balaraman, Rajesh A. Maheshwari 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 318 329 10.18311/jnr/2022/30157 Catechins and Theaflavins: An Overview on Therapeutic Application Flavonoids are a sort of natural substance which are basically plant secondary metabolites having a polyphenolic structure present in a wide range of food products. Flavonoids have become a vital constituent in nutraceutical, pharmacological, therapeutic, and cosmetic fields. This is owing to their capability to regulate essential cellular enzyme activity along with anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Through the revelation of a minimal cardiovascular death rate and the deterrence of CHD, research on flavonoids has gotten a boost. The functional mechanisms of flavonoids are still not completely known. Molecular docking and bioinformatics information are also been used to forecast potential flavonoid functions. Flavonoids are divided into several categories. Catechins and Theaflavins (TF’s) are two types of flavonoids that have been discussed in this review. ROS scavenging property of tea catechins and polyphenols have been demonstrated in vitro, and they may also serve as indirect antioxidants via their influence on transcription features and enzyme actions. There are a number of antioxidant polyphenols called collectively as “theaflavins” that are produced during the enzymatic oxidation (sometimes referred to mistakenly as “fermentation”) of black tea leaves by flavan-3-ol condensation Theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3’-gallate, and theaflavin-3-3’-digallate are the major theaflavins. Ashim Kumar Sen Dhanya B. Sen Aarti S. Zanwar Ramachandran Balaraman Umang Shah Rajesh A. Maheshwari Copyright (c) 2022 Ashim Kumar Sen, Dhanya B. Sen, Aarti S. Zanwar, Ramachandran Balaraman, Rajesh A. Maheshwari 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 330 346 10.18311/jnr/2022/30181 A Scientific Evidence-based Review of Tamarind usage in Indian Folklore Medicine Currently, the paradigm shift of folklore medicine is obvious among the public and researchers. Study based on traditional medicine around the world has become prominent with the addition of pharmacological studies to scientifically prove the effectiveness of the concerned medicine. Tamarind (<em>Tamarindus indica</em> L. of family Fabaceae) alone or with a combination of other herbs has been proved to be effective for treating many ailments such as arthritis, dysuria, dental diseases, ulcer, sexual dysfunction, etc. It also exhibits pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, anti-dysentery, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-asthmatic, and anti-diabetic. The pharmacological effect of the fruit or the pulp, leaves, flowers, kernel, and inner bark has been studied. Furthermore, different species of tamarind have also been studied. Numerous studies such as chemical, analytical and biological were conducted to confirm the same. The clinical studies of tamarind match with folklore practices with respect to pharmacological actions, still some are yet to be explored. This study focuses on reviewing the chemical composition, pharmacological effects, and nutritional effects of tamarind. Hence it can be concluded that the folklore practice and modern medicinal practice interact with each other. Thus, the folklore practices without being neglected can be extended for the support of scientific evidence through detailed researches. Mohan Maruga Raja S. Poonguzhali Bhagya V. Rao Antara Choudhury Agilandeswari Devarajan Copyright (c) 2022 Agilandeswari Devarajan 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 347 362 10.18311/jnr/2022/30123 Therapeutic Effect of <i>Aloe vera</i> on Croton Oil Induced Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are vascular structures in the anal canal with swollen veins in the lowest part of the rectum/anus. Till date, there is no specific treatment available for different grades of hemorrhoids. However, it is evident that lesser invasive options are to have opted for at the earliest along with conservative measures such as analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents. The study evaluates the efficacy of gel obtained from <em>Aloe barbadensis</em> Miller in treating hemorrhoids in a croton oil-induced Wistar rat model. Animals were allocated into 5 groups. Group I and II served as the normal and negative control, Group III as standard, and Group IV and V received an oral route and a topical route respectively. Biochemical parameters such as TNF-<span><em>?</em></span> and IL-6 were estimated in each group after the therapy of 5 days. Quantitative estimation of edema was done by determining the Evans blue dye concentration in the plasma exudates in recto-anal tissue. The recto-anal coefficient was estimated as a direct measure of inflammation. Histopathological variations among the groups were analyzed. Statistical analysis of the data affirms the curative effect of aloe vera on Hemorrhoids. Results demonstrate that aloe gel is much more effective when compared to Pilex ointment which was used as standard (p&lt;0.05). However, oral preparation was not found to be effective in mitigating the disease as that standard (p&gt;0.05). Swathi Suresh S. Ankul Singh Chitra Vellapandian Copyright (c) 2022 Swathi Suresh, Ankul Singh S, Chitra Vellapandian 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 472 481 10.18311/jnr/2022/29777