Application of Azotobacter and Mycorrihzal Fungus on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Varieties and Quality of Derived Seeds under Supplementary Irrigation


  • University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Faculty of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Ardabili, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • University of Gonbad Kavous, Department of Plant Production, Gonbad Kavous, Iran, Islamic Republic of


In order to study effects of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza fungus on yield and yield components of wheat varieties and quality of derived seeds under supplementary irrigation, an experiment was conducted as a factorial arranged in a RCBD with three replications in Agricultural Research Center of Gorgan. Experimental factors including two irrigated wheat varieties including N-80-20 and Gonbad Cv., six levels of inoculations including control (without biologic fertilizer), application of Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices), inoculation with Azotobacter crococum (powdery), inoculation with commercial liquid Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza, inoculation with Azotobacter crococum (powdery) and Mycorrhiza, inoculation with commercial liquid Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza, and three levels of supplementary irrigation (non-irrigated, irrigation at booting and irrigation at full heading phases). Results revealed that inoculation of wheat varieties with a combination of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza induced seed yield and yield components increment as well as quality improvement of derived seeds. Supplementary irrigation at heading phase had more positive effects on traits of wheat varieties. Considering to the investigated characteristics, N-80-20 had a better response to seed inoculation and supplementary irrigation comparing to Gonbad cultivar. It seems that, application of biological fertilizers and supplementary irrigation is an appropriate and low-cost method for increasing of yield and improvement of seed quality of wheat. In order to increase the seed yield and improvement of seed quality, inoculation of seeds with a joint combination of Azotobacter and Mycorrihza along with supplementary irrigation at heading stage of wheat could be recommended.


Biologic Fertilizer, Seed Quality, Terminal Drought Stress, Yield, Yield Component.

Subject Discipline

agriculture, agronomy

Full Text:


FAOSTAT. Statistical database of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. FAO. Available from: 2009.

Ghorbani MH, Pourfarid A. The effect of salinity and sowing depth on wheat seed emergence. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources. 2008; 14(5): 1–8.

George RAT. Vegetable seed production. 3rd ed. CABI Publishing. 2009.

Malakouti MJ, Tehrani ML. Role of micronutrient in yield increasing and improvement quality of crops. Tarbiat Modarres Publication. 1999; p. 301.

Kiani A, Nournia AA. An investigation of Rainfall and Supplementary Irrigation Productivity in some Wheat Cultivars. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 2005; 21(5): 155–73.

Hong Bo S, Zong Suo L, Ming An S, Shi Meng S, Zan Min H. Investigation on dynamic changes of photosynthetic characteristics of 10 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes during two vegetative-growth stages at water deficits. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2005; 43(3):221–7. PMid:15975772

Bahrani A, Pourreza J, Joo MH. Response of winter wheat to co-inoculation with Azotobacter and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under different sources of nitrogen fertilizer. AEJAES. 2010; 8(1): 95–103.

Zaidi A, Khan S. Interactive effect of rhizotrophic microorganisms on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake of wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2005; 28(12): 2079–92.

Kumar A, Sharma S, Mishra S. Evaluating effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal consortia and Azotobacter chroococcum in improving biomass yield of Jatropha curcas. Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology. 2016; 150(5): 1056–64.

Seyed Sharifi R, Khavazi K. Effects of seed priming with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2011; 9(3,4): 496–500.

Singh S, Kapoor KK. Inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus improves dry matter yield and nutrient uptake by wheat grown in a sandy soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 1999; 28(2): 139–44.

Khalid A, Arshad M, Zahir ZA. Screening plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for improving growth and yield of wheat. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2004; 96: 473–80. PMid:14962127

Timmusk S, Abd El-Daim IA, Copolovici L, Tanilas T, Kannaste A, et al. Drought-Tolerance of Wheat Improved by Rhizosphere Bacteria from Harsh Environments: Enhanced Biomass Production and Reduced Emissions of Stress Volatiles. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(5): 1–13. PMid:24811199 PMCid:PMC4014485

Neumann E, George E. Colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) enhanced phosphorus uptake from dry soil in Sorghum bicolor (L.). Plant and Soil. 2004; 261: 245–55.

Wu SC, Cao ZH, Li ZG, Cheung KC, Wong MH. Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma. 2005. 125(1): 155–166.

Tinca GN, Munteanu A, Podaru M, Teliban G. Optimization of certain technological measure for Hyssop (Hysspus officinalis) crops in the ecological condition. Financed by Ministry of Education Research and Youth. 2007; 1059: 132–4.

Mamatha G, Bagyaraj D, Jaganath S. Inoculation of fieldestablished mulberry and papaya with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a mycorrhiza helper bacterium. Mycorrhiza. 2002; 12(6): 313–6. PMid:12466919

Daei G, Ardekani MR, Rejali F, Teimuri S, Miransari M. Alleviation of salinity stress on wheat yield, yield components and nutrient uptake using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2009; 166: 617–25. PMid:19100656

Ruiz-Sanchez M, Aroca R, Munoz Y, Polon R, Ruiz-Lozano JM. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis enhances the photosynthetic efficiency and the antioxidative response of rice plants subjected to drought stress. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2010; 167: 862–-9. PMid:20227134

Shahzad SM, Khalid A, Arif MS, Riaz M, Ashraf M, Iqbal Z, Yasmeen T. Co-inoculation integrated with P-enriched compost improved nodulation and growth of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under irrigated and rainfed farming systems. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 2014; 50: 1–12.

Zare H, Kuchiki A, Nasiri Mahallati M, Rezvani-Moqadam P. Evaluation of biologic fertilizers inoculation on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of two wheat cultivars with alternate alfalfa. Journal of Agroecology. 2015; 5(1): 62–7.

Kilic H, Yagbasanlar T. The effect of drought stress on grain yield, yield components and some quality traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Cultivars. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 2010; 38(1):1 64–70.

Gooding MJ, Ellis RH, Shewry PR, Schofield JD. Effects of restricted water availability and increased temperature on the grain filling, during and quality of winter wheat. Journal of Cereal Science. 2003; 37: 296–309. jcrs.2002.0501

Blumenthal C, Stone PJ, Gras PW, Bekes F, Clark B, Barlow EWR, Appels R, Wrigley CW. Heat-shock protein and doughquality changes resulting from heat stress during grain filling in wheat. Cereal Chemistry. 1998; 75: 43–50.

Taiz L, Zeiger E, Moller IM, Murphy A. Plant physiology and development. Sinauer Associates, Incorporated. 2015.


  • There are currently no refbacks.