Volume 3, Issue 1, 2018   |   https://doi.org/10.18311/jhsr/2018/20020   |  Cited by 0 articles

Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Delta State of Nigeria: Evaluation of the Early Infant Diagnosis Program


  • Novena University Ogume, Department of Public and Community Health, Nigeria
  • Charles Sturt University, School of Community Health, Orange, NSW, 2800, Australia


Background: The global public health issue of Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV is being addressed with Prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) strategy. A narrative review has recently been published. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine from an early infant diagnosis program in Delta State if there is reduction in MTCT of HIV. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Three health institutions comprising of one from each of the three senatorial district in Delta State were used for the study. The records of 1080 prenatally exposed babies that had DNA PCR tests between 6 weeks to 18 months were evaluated descriptively. Data mining was from the period of August 2009 to December, 2016. Child followup register was reviewed for information that included, age the child had PCR done, commencement of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) at birth, if mother was on ART, result of PCR and test done at 18 months. Results: 98.0% of HIV positive mothers were on ART during pregnancy, 98.9% of the infants were on ART at birth, and 93.1% were exclusively breast fed. The outcome of the PMTCT program obtained shows that compared to 100% effectiveness among infants who were compulsorily treated on the basis of their mothers being on treatment, there is 89% efficiency among those who either themselves or their mothers received treatment; but only 17% efficiency was achieved where neither mother nor child is receiving treatment. Conclusion: This study shows that with effective PMTCT intervention, reducing MTCT of HIV is being achieved by the public health service.


Early Identification, Infant HIV, PMTCT Efficiency

Subject Discipline


Full Text:


AVERT. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV; 2017. Available from: crossref

World Health Organization. Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants; 2010. Available from: crossref.

Hohlfelder E. How do you prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV? 2010. Available from: crossref

World Health Organization. New data on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and their policy implications. 2001. Available from: crossref

World Health Organization. Consolidated Guidelines on the use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.

Available from: crossref

Hill A, Dauncey T, Levi J, Heath K, Pérez Casas C. Higher risks of mother-to-child HIV transmission in countries with lower HIV prevalence: UNAIDS 2013 results for 32 countries with generalised epidemics. Journal of Virus Eradication. 2015; 1(4):257–63. PMid:27482423 PMCid:PMC4946657

World Health Organization. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV; 2016. Available from: crossref

Rupali P, Condon R, Roberts S, Wilkinson L, Voss L, Thomas M. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV infection in Pacific countries. Internal Med J. 2007; 37(4):216–23. crossref

World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: Recommendations for a public health approach. 2nd ed.; 2016. Available from: crossref

Piot P, Bartos M, Larson H, Zewdie D, Mane P. Coming to terms with complexity: A call to action for HIV prevention. The Lancet. 2008; 372(9641):845–59. crossref

Kahungu MM, Kiwanuka J, Kaharuza F, Wanyenze RK. Factors associated with HIV positive sero-status among exposed infants attending care at health facilities: a cross sectional study in rural Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1):139. crossref

Marinda P, Chibwe N, Tambo E, Lulanga S, KhayekaWandabwa C. Challenges and opportunities of optimal breastfeeding in the context of HIV option B+ guidelines. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1):541. crossref

Marks G, Crepaz N, Janssen RS. Estimating sexual transmission of HIV from persons aware and unaware that they are infected with the virus in the USA. AIDS. 2006; 20(10):1447–50. crossref

Anoje C, Aiyenigba B, Suzuki C, Badru T, Akpoigbe K, Odo M, et al. Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV:findings from an early infant diagnosis program in southsouth region of Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12:184. crossref

Institute of Medicine. 4. The burden of HIV/AIDS: Implications for African States and societies. Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility. Washington (DC): National Academy of Sciences (US); 2011. Available from: crossref

Ibobo JA, Nwose EU, Chime H. Reducing the mother-tochild transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in Delta state Nigeria. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017; 4(12):4352–7. crossref

UNAIDS. Countdown to zero - global plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive; 2011. Available from: crossref

Adetokunboh OO, Oluwasanu M. Eliminating mother-tochild transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus in sub-Saharan Africa: The journey so far and what remains to be done. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2016; 9(4):396–407. crossref

Stringer JS, Sinkala M, Maclean CC, Levy J, Kankasa C, Degroot A, et al. Effectiveness of a city-wide program to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia. AIDS. 2005; 19(12):1309–15. crossref PMid:16052086 PMCid:PMC2745046

Martin F, Palladino C. Early infant diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in Luanda, Angola, using a new DNA PCR assay and dried blood spots. 2017; 12(7):e0181352. crossref

Mateus R, Bolzan A, Gomes P, Brito J, Carvalho AP, Cardoso Y, et al. Cost-effectiveness of early infant HIV diagnosis of HIV-exposed infants and immediate antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children under 24 months in Thailand. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91004. crossref

Motswere-Chirwa C, Voetsch A, Lu L, Letsholathebe V, Lekone P, Machakaire E, et al. Follow-up of infants diagnosed with HIV- Early Infant Diagnosis Program, Francistown, Botswana, 2005-2012. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2014; 63(7):158–60. Mid:24553200 PMCid:PMC4584761

Noubiap JJ, Bongoe A, Demanou SA. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Findings from an early infant diagnosis program in Bertoua, Eastern Cameroon. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013; 15:65. crossref

Federal Government of Nigeria. National Guidelines on Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in Nigeria. 4th Ed. Abuja; 2010. Available from: crossref

Sinkala M, Stout JP, Vermund SH, Goldenberg RL, Stringer JS. Zambian women’s attitudes toward mass nevirapine therapy to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV. Lancet. 2001; 358(9293):1611–2. crossref

Msellati P, Hingst G, Kaba F, Viho I, Welffens-Ekra C, Dabis F. Operational issues in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, 1998-99. Bull World Health Organ. 2001; 79(7):641–7. PMid:11477967 PMCid:PMC2566468

Adejumo PO, Erhunwuse EO, Oyetunde MO. Utilization of HIV and AIDS mother-to-child transmission prevention and babies’ outcome in Asaba, Nigeria. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 2014;4(2):178–85. crossref

Rainwater-Lovett K, Uprety P, Persaud D. Advances and hope for perinatal HIV remission and cure in children and adolescents. Current opinion in pediatrics. 2016; 28(1):86–92. crossref

National Institutes of Health. Child living with HIV maintains remission without drugs since 2008: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2017. Available from: crossref

Davies MA, Keiser O, Technau K, Eley B, Rabie H, van Cutsem G, et al. Outcomes of the South African national antiretroviral treatment programme for children: The IeDEA Southern Africa collaboration. South African Medical Journal- Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde. 2009; 99(10):730–7. PMCID: PMC2925142

Cotton MF, Rabie H. Impact of earlier combination antiretroviral therapy on outcomes in children. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2015; 10(1):12–7. crossref

Martinez-Bonet M, Puertas MC, Fortuny C, Ouchi D, Mellado MJ, Rojo P, et al. Establishment and replenishment of the viral reservoir in perinatally HIV-1-infected children initiating very early antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2015; 61(7):1169–78. crossref

Aliyu MH, Blevins M, Audet C, Shepherd BE, Hassan A, Onwujekwe O, et al. Optimizing PMTCT service delivery in rural North-Central Nigeria: Protocol and design for a cluster randomized study. Contemp Clin Trials. 2013; 36(1):187–97. crossref

Fronczak N, Oyediran KA, Mullen S, Kolapo UM. Dual indices for prioritizing investment in decentralized HIV services at Nigerian primary health care facilities. Health Policy and Planning. 2016; 31(3):377–89. crossref

Chukwuemeka IK, Fatima MI, Ovavi ZK, Olukayode O. The impact of a HIV prevention of mother to child transmission program in a nigerian early infant diagnosis centre. Niger Med J. 2014; 55(3):204–8. crossref

Ezeanolue EE, Obiefune MC, Yang W, Obaro SK, Ezeanolue CO, Ogedegbe GG. Comparative effectiveness of congregationversus clinic-based approach to prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: Study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. Implement Sci. 2013; 8:62. crossref

Radin AK, Abutu AA, Okwero MA, Adler MR, Anyaike C, Asiimwe HT, et al. Confronting challenges in monitoring and evaluation: Innovation in the context of the global plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999). 2017; 75(Suppl 1):S66–S75. crossref

Oladokun RE, Awolude O, Brown BJ, Adesina O, Oladokun A, Roberts A, et al. Service uptake and performance of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2010; 39(2):81–7. PMID: 21117403 PMid:21117403

Horwood C, Haskins L, Vermaak K, Phakathi S, Subbaye R, Doherty T. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an evaluation of PMTCT implementation and integration into routine maternal, child and women’s health services. Trop Med Int Health. 2010; 15(9):992–9. crossref

Gourlay A, Wringe A, Todd J, Michael D, Reniers G, Urassa M, et al. Challenges with routine data sources for PMTCT programme monitoring in East Africa: Insights from Tanzania. Global health action. 2015; 8:29987. crossref


  • There are currently no refbacks.