Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction <div id="i-scholarabout"><img class="media-object" style="width: 222px; float: left; margin: 0px 16px 15px 20px;" src="" /> <p style="margin-left: 261px;"><strong>Editor :</strong> Dr. M. A. Akbarsha<br /><strong>Online ISSN :</strong> 2455-1244<br /><strong>Print ISSN :</strong> 0971-913X<br /><strong>Frequency :</strong> Quaterly<br /><strong>Publisher/s :</strong> Informatics Publishing Limited, Society for Reproductive Biology and Comparative Endocrinology</p> <p><!--<a style="color: red;" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Brochure-International conference on Reproductive biology,Comparative endocrinology &amp; Development</a><br />-->Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction (JER) is a Quarterly publication and is a single-blind peer reviewed journal. The aim of the journal is to disseminate high quality information related to basic and applied aspects of Endocrinology and Reproduction. <br /><span style="color: blue;">The Journal is Indexed in Index Copernicus, included in Web of Science Zoological Record and BIOSIS Previews, <br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Journal is Indexed in U. S. National Library of Medicine</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">UGC Mandate.</a></span> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Impact Factor of the Journal according to Citefactor for 2020-21 is 1.05.</a></p> </div> <p id="homecontent"><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> en-US (Dr. M. A. Akbarsha) (Journal Coordinator - Poornima T) Thu, 28 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Role of Polyamines in Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome has become a major health hazard worldwide, due to an increased consumption of fast food along with other unhealthy eating habits, decrease in physical activities and major lifestyle changes as a result of modernization. Metabolic syndrome is a non-communicable disease resulting in complications like type 2 diabetes, coronary diseases, stroke etc. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are naturally occurring cationic molecules essential for various cellular functions. Dysregulated polyamine circulation and metabolism have been linked to several conditions including cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adipogenesis, altered lipid or glucose metabolism, chronic inflammation, etc. Several studies regarding the role of polyamines in metabolic syndrome in various models have been conducted, and the outcomes suggest a positive correlation in the prognosis of metabolic syndrome. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of metabolic syndrome, its prevalence in India and worldwide, factors causing the syndrome, and the role of polyamines in the pathogenesis of various complications of metabolic syndrome. Ananya Ajith, Kavya Chandra, Nayan Mate, Arnab Banerjee Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ETS-Domain Transcription Factor Elk1 is Critical for Embryo Implantation via Regulatory Control on Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling is one of the decisive pathways in regulating embryo-uterine interactions. Ras-MAP Kinase activation is effected by ETS family proteins; ELK1, being the first member of the Ternary Complex Factor (TCF) family, is rapidly activated by ERK. Based on the significance of ETS family member in the process of embryo implantation and presence of ELK1 during embryogenesis, we hypothesized that ELK1 would also discharge its role in embryo implantation. We intend to analyze the importance of ELK1 during embryo implantation for which we have used a mouse pregnancy model system. Our results clearly document the expression of ELK1 during different days of pregnancy. ELK1 is highly activated during peri-implantation period as its expression in the nucleus is increased compared to pre-implantation stages. <em>Elk-1</em> knock down leads to pregnancy failure which is attributed to changes in perforin, <em>c-fos, Mcl-1</em> and <em>Sod1. Elk-1</em> also decreases SOD activity which is the crucial factor controlling superoxide during embryo implantation. These results suggest that <em>Elk-1</em> affects the process of embryo attachment to uterus either directly or by way of molecules that are obligatory for the process of embryo implantation. Shiny Titus, N. Lini, A. P. Renjini, D. P. Zyju, Malini Laloraya Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gestational-onset Hypothyroidism Affects Genes Controlling Epididymal Sperm Maturation in F<sub>1</sub> Progeny Rats <strong>Purpose</strong>: Hypothyroidism is associated with infertility. We have reported that gestational-onset hypothyroidism impairs post-testicular sperm maturation in F<sub>1</sub> progeny rats, whereas the underlying mechanism remains obscure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis “transient gestational-onset hypothyroidism affects post-testicular sperm maturation by inducing oxidative stress and modifying the expression of specific genes controlling epididymal function in F<sub>1</sub> progeny rats”. <strong>Methods:</strong> Hypothyroidism was induced by providing 0.05% methimazole in drinking water to pregnant rats during specific periods of foetal differentiation of testis and epididymis. On the postnatal day 120, epididymes were dissected out and used for various analyses. Sperm parameters and activities of antioxidants and pro-oxidants were assayed using standard protocols. qRT-PCR and western blot were carried out to assess the expression of epididymal functional genes and their respective proteins. <strong>Results:</strong> Gestational-onset hypothyroidism produced decrease of sperm motility and membrane integrity, and increase of abnormal sperm morphologies. While the concentration of reduced glutathione and specific activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased, levels of pro-oxidants hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation increased. Expression levels of androgen and thyroid hormone receptors ?/?, aquaporin 9, and glutathione peroxidise 5 decreased, whereas estrogen receptors ?/? increased in rats with gestational-onset hypothyroidism. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results support our hypothesis and we conclude that gestationalonset hypothyroidism impairs post-testicular sperm maturation due to oxidative stress and modified expression of nuclear hormone receptors and aquaporin 9 in the epididymis of F<sub>1</sub> progeny. Sadhasivam Balaji, Navaneethabalakrishnan Shobana, Ajit Kumar Navin, Jaganathan Anbalagan, Bhaskaran Ravi Sankar, Ramachandran Ilangovan, Mariajoseph Michael Aruldhas Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Emerging Role of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Body Mass Index on Semen Parameters of Infertile Men The curiosity on possible association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and infertility has gained considerable toehold over the recent years. Infertility, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea exhibit a vicious circle and, hence, their interrelationships are being explored incessantly. Our objective is to determine the influence of body mass index and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) on semen quality of infertile men. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 infertile male participants. Individuals were grouped based on their BMI. OSA screening was done with STOPBANG questionnaire, and risk stratification was done according to the scoring system. Semen analysis was done in accordance with WHO 2010 guidelines. Participants with normal BMI were 16 (26.7%) while 27 (45%) participants were overweight and 17 (28.3%) were obese. OSA risk stratification showed that 16.7% were at high risk for OSA, 40% were at moderate risk and 43.3% were at low risk. High OSA risk among infertile men was significantly associated with sperm concentration (p= 0.03) whereas elevated BMI had significant association with semen volume (p= 0.04). Certain seminal characteristics had a conceivable relation with both OSA risk and increased BMI. Hence, screening for OSA and maintaining an ideal body weight might improve the reproductive potential. Meena Andiappan, Damal Chandrasekar Mathangi, Puvithra Thanikachalam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Attenuation of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) Signaling Induces Granulosa Cell Sensitivity to Gonadotropins in Female Mouse Several lines of evidence support the notion that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) and gonadotropic hormones are major regulators of ovarian follicle development by inducing gonadotropin-mediated steroid hormone production and regulating ovarian follicle cell proliferation. Research from our laboratory and elsewhere have demonstrated that BMPs play important roles during the early stages of folliculogenesis. Despite the extensive research to reveal the mechanism of interaction between BMPs and gonadotropic hormones in the process of folliculogenesis, the exact mechanism of such an interaction is not adequately understood. Previously, we developed a unique mouse model characterized by a short-term attenuation of the BMP signaling system using passive immunization against bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B). This model unequivocally demonstrated that the attenuation of BMP action was an effective method of enhancing fertility reserve and promoting follicle and ovulation rates in female mice. In addition, this study pointed to the possibility of bi-directional mutual regulation between BMPs, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), and Luteinizing Hormone (LH). To gain further insight into this mechanism we used this mouse model to examine the protein expression and mRNA level of BMPR1B, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) and Luteinizing Hormone/Choriogonadotropin Receptor (LHCGR) in multiple stages of follicle development in female mice. Immunofluorescent analysis of female mice treated with anti-BMPR1B antibodies showed a significant upregulation of BMPR1B, FSHR, and LHCGR in the ovarian granulosa cells during the main stages of follicle development, whereas treatment with anti-BMP4 antibodies showed no effect. In addition, attenuation of BMPR1B resulted in upregulation of the FSHR (exclusively expressed in the granulosa cell) and LHCGR mRNA levels in the ovary. The present study implies that BMPs engage indirectly in regulating the later stages of folliculogenesis, in addition to their direct role in the regulation of the early stages of follicle development, by enhancing granulosa cell sensitivity to gonadotropins through upregulating the receptor expression. We propose that our mouse model is siutable to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between BMPs and gonadotropins in folliculogenesis. Sarmed Al-Samerria, Suresh K. A. Palanisamy, Ibtisam Al-Ali, Cyril D. Mamotte, James R. McFarlane, Ghanim Almahbobi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Screening the Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus in 1<sup>st</sup> year MBBS and BDS Students of a Medical College in Bangladesh <strong>Background:</strong> Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common and serious chronic debilitating disease. Until recently, type 2 diabetes has been typically regarded as a disease of the middle-aged and elderly. While this age group still maintains a higher risk than younger adults, evidence is accumulating that onset in those under 30 years is increasingly common. Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major public health hazard affecting people in both developed and developing countries. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, across the World. Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis, life-threatening complications, sub-therapeutic treatment, and higher treatment costs are some crucial barriers to the control of type 2 diabetes. <strong>Aim of the Study:</strong> This study aimed to assess the risk factors of T2D in 1st-year MBBS and BDS students of North East Medical College (NEMC), Sylhet, Bangladesh. <strong>Methods:</strong> This was an observational crosssectional study undertaken at the Endocrine Outpatient Department in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh, during the period from November 2017 to February 2018. Non-probability purposive sampling was done. Out of 145 MBBS and BDS students who got admitted in session 2017-2018, data of 143 students were included as a part of regular medical checkup after permission of the concerned authority. As applicable, all data were expressed as frequencies and mean ±SD or mean ±SE. Student’s t-test and Chi-square test were conducted where the p-value &lt;0.05 was considered significant. Data analysis was done using computer-based SPSS version-22.0. <strong>Results:</strong> Among the total of 143 participants, 36.8% were female, and the male-female ratio was 1:1.7. Among all of them, 53% belonged to the 17-20-year age group whereas the rest 47% belonged to the 21-22-year age group. In analyzing the association of risk factors among participants we observed that the highest number of participants was associated with a family history of DM which was 19.83%. Then 18.95%, 18.08%, 14.58%, 10.79%, 9.91%, 7.29%, 0.29%, and another 0.29% participants were associated with fast food, physical inactivity, rich food, acanthosis nigricans, overweight, obesity, HTN, and dyslipidemiaT2d, respectively. According to the p values, we did not find any significant correlation between T2D status with any risk factor in this study. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of this study indicate that family history of T2D, consumption of fast food, physical inactivity, consumption of rich food, acanthosis nigricans, and overweight are the most potential risk factors of diabetes mellitus for such participants. But we did not find any significant correlation among those risk factors. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may ensure more specific results for such a study. Mohammad Abdul Hannan, Shahjada Selim, Madhusudan Saha, Mohammad Afzal Miah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000