Alterations in Hepatic Antioxidant Systems and Lipid Peroxidation Products in a Freshwater Fish, <i>Labeo rohita</i>, Exposed to 4-Nonylphenol, an Endocrine Disruptor


  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala
  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala
  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala
  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala
  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala



Antioxidants, Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical, 4-Nonylphenol, Oxidative Stress


4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical that could be present in the aquatic environment, but little is known about its oxidative stress effects. An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-NP may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Due to its hydrophobicity and long half-life, 4-NP can easily accumulate in living organisms, including humans, where it inflicts a series of toxic effects. In the present study, the oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters of Labeo rohita after exposure to various sub-lethal concentrations of 4-NP for 5, 10 and 15 days were examined. The level of glutathione content and the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-stransferase were significantly inhibited, whereas the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and the lipid peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde and conjugated diene were significantly elevated, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. The results demonstrate that 4-NP in aquatic systems can affect antioxidant responses.


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How to Cite

Reshmi, S., Remya, V. S., Anjali, V. R., Shehna Mahim, S., & Aruna Devi, C. (2021). Alterations in Hepatic Antioxidant Systems and Lipid Peroxidation Products in a Freshwater Fish, <i>Labeo rohita</i>, Exposed to 4-Nonylphenol, an Endocrine Disruptor. Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction, 23(1), 13–24.



Original Research