Stunning Facts of Bird Migration: Mini-Review


  • Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh
  • Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh
  • Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh



Birds, Flight, Hormones, Migration, Navigation


Migration is a unique phenomenon that millions of birds perform annually. It includes various aspects such as preparation for the long journey, migratory patterns, problems faced during migration, figuring out routes, etc. Some more interesting things are genetics behind migration and urge for migration. Zugunruhe, a period for migratory restlessness, has been observed well in caged birds or those restricted to Zoos. The analysis of population studies in European blackcaps evidences that ADCYAP1 gene is one of the major genes which regulate the expression of migratory behavior. It is instinctively known to young birds which way to go and how to adapt complex migratory patterns of movement as this knowledge is genetically imprinted some way or the other. Astronomical cues such as solar and stellar compasses in conjunction with the earth's magnetic compass provide aid of senses in migration and this is very well received by the eyes of migrant birds to overcome the long routes of journey. Ecological implications of migration include adequate exploitation of food resources in some regions, which won't be possible otherwise. Also, migrant birds favour regions having productivity that varies with seasons as in these regions there may be food surpluses. Anthropogenic actions pose serious threats to migratory birds and also the diverse developments (mostly commercial and deforestation) of the human habitats are the worst threats the birds face during migration.


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Web References


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How to Cite

Sweta, A., Pratap, D., & Haldar, C. (2021). Stunning Facts of Bird Migration: Mini-Review. Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction, 23(1), 45–48.



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