Plant Growth Promotion and Induced Defense Response in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) by Trichoderma


Affiliations

  • ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500030, India
  • Osmania University, Department of Microbiology, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500030, India

Abstract

Nine potential Trichoderma strains were tested for mycoparasitic, defence enzyme activity and root colonizing behaviour against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. carthami in safflower (Carthmus tinctorius L). Among them three strains viz., T. harzianum Th4d, T. asperellum TaDOR7316 and T. asperellum Tv5 were found to be most effective showing superior antagonistic activity. Hyphal interaction studies revealed that the inhibition was caused by an interaction that took place in close contact with the host hypha, causing lysis, swelling and coiling of mycelia resulting potentially reduced mycelial growth of M. phaseolina and showed lytic enzymes activity to various extent in Th4d, Tv5 and TaDOR 7316. These strains were also able to solubilize inorganic (P). Increased activity of defense related enzymes viz., peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in these three potential strains pre-treated safflower plants challenged with M. phaseolina was observed. PO, PPO and PAL activity was also increased two-three folds more in all these bioagents. Interaction between the bioagents and the safflower root system showed profuse adhesion of hyphae to the plant roots as well as colonization of the root epidermis and cortex cells but not the vessels at early stages of safflower root system. Levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the bioagents treated leaves and untreated (control) were determined microscopically. Application of these bioagents under field conditions reduced the incidence of root rot and Fusarium wilt, increased growth and plant biomass to a reasonable extent with better root colonization, which is directly correlated with the resistance of the plant against infection and high seed yield, was observed with bioagents treatment. Thus, it is evident that the hyphal interaction and enzymes play a key role to stimulate the defense mechanism which aid in disease management as well as plant growth promotion of the host plant against pathogen attack.

Keywords

Antagonistic Activity, Defense Enzymes, Plant-Fungus Interaction, Safflower, Trichoderma spp.

Subject Discipline

Botany

Full Text:

References

Altomare C, Norvell WA, Bjorkman T, Harman GE. 1999. Solubilization of phosphates and micronutrients by the plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai 1295-22. Appl Environ Microbiol. 65(7): 2926–2933.

Bestwick CS, Brown IR, Benneth MHR, Mansfield JW. 1997. Localization of hydrogen peroxide accumulation during the hypersensitive reaction of lettuce cells to Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola. Plant Cell 9: 209–221.

Carbone I, Kohn LM. 1999. A method for designing primer for speciation studies in filamentous ascomycetes. Mycologia 91(3): 553–556.

De Marco JL, Valadares, Inglis MC, Felix CR. 2003. Production of hydrolytic enzymes by Trichoderma isolates with antagonists activity against Crinipellis perniciosa, the casual agent of witches broom of cocoa. Brazilian J Microbial Ecol. 7: 29–38.

Dennis C, Wesbter J. 1971. Antagonistic properties of speciesgroup of Trichoderma. III. Hyphal Interactions. Trans Br Mycol Soc. 57: 363–369.

Druzhinina I, Kopchinskiy AG, Komon M, Bissett J, Szakacs G, Kubicek CP. 2005. An oligo-nucleotide barcode for species identification in Trichoderma and Hypocrea. Fungal Genet Biol. 42: 813–828.

Abdel-Fattah GM, Shabana YM, Ismail AE, Rashad YM. 2007. Trichoderma harzianum: A biocontrol agent against Bipolaris oryzae. Mycopathology 164: 81–89.

Hafez YM, Kiraly Z. 2003. Role of hydrogen peroxide in symptom expression of barley susceptible and resistant to powdery mildew. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 38: 227–236.

Hammer Schmidt R, Nucldes EM, Kuc J. 1982. Association of enhanced peroxidase activity with induced systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum lagenarium. Physiological and Mol Pl Pathol. 20: 73–82.

Huckel Hoven R, Fodor J, Preis C, Kogel K-H. 1999. Hypersensitive cell death and papilla formation in barley attacked by the powdery mildew fungus are associated with hydrogen peroxide but not with salicylic acid accumulation. Plant Physiol. 119: 12511260.

Karasuda S, Tanaka S, Yamamoto Y, Koga D. 2003. Plant chitinase as a possible biocontrol agent for use instead of chemical fungicides. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 67(1): 221–224.

Kuzniak E, Urbanek H. 2000. The involvement of hydrogen peroxide in plant responses to stresses. Acta Physiol Plant 22(2): 195–203.

Lorito M, Woo SL, Harman GE, Monte E. 2010. Translational research on Trichoderma: from’ omics to the field. Annual Rev Phytopathol 48: 395–417.

Chacon MR, Rodriguez-Galan O, Benitez T, Sousa S, Rey M, Liobell A, Delgado-Jarana J. 2007. Microscopic and Transcriptome analysis of early colonization of tomato roots by Trichoderma harzianum. International Microbiol. 10: 19–27.

Mayer AM, Harel E, Shaul RB. 1965. Assay of catechol oxidase a critical comparison of methods. Phytochemistry 5: 783–789.

Paul D, Saju KA, Jisha PJ, Sarma YR, Kumar A, Anandaraj M. 2005. Mycolytic enzymes produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma spp. against Phytophthora capsici, the foot rot pathogen of black pepper (Piper nigrum L). Annals Microbiol. 55: 129–133.

Pham GM, Srivastava A, Saxena AK, Pareek A, Varma A. 2005. Protocol to understand the interaction between rhizobacteria and symbiotic fungus. Basic Research and Applications of Mycorrhizae. I. K. International Private Ltd., New Delhi. 425–445.

Prasad RD, Rangeshwaran R. 2000. Shelf life and bioefficacy of Trichoderma harzianum formulated in various carrier materials. Plant Dis Res. 15(1):38–42.

Samuels GJ, Dodd S, Gams W, Castlebury LA, Petrini O. 2002. Trichoderma species associated with the green mold epidemic of commercially grown Agaricus bisporus. Mycologia 94: 146–168.

Silva HSA, Romeiro RDS, Macagnam D, Halfeld BDA, Pereira MCB, Mounteer A. 2004. Rhizobacterial induction of systemic resistance in tomato plants: non-specific protection and increase in enzyme activities. Biol Control 29: 288–295.

Singh UP, Prithviraj B. 1997. Neemazal, a product of neem (Azadirachta indica) inducers resistance in pea (Pisum satium) against Erysiphe pisi. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol. 51: 181–194.

Stergiopoulos I, Zwiers LH, De Waard MA. 2003. The ABC transporter MgAtr4 is a virulence factor of Mycosphaerella graminicola that affects colonization of substomatal cavities in wheat leaves. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 16: 689–698.

Vincent JM. 1927. Distortion of fungal hypae in the presence of certain inhibitors. Nature 159: 850.

White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor JW. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing. pp. 315–322. In: Sninsky JJ and White TJ. (Eds.). PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, New York.

Zhu X-F, Zhou Y, Feng J-L. 2007. Analysis of both chitinase and chitosanase produced by Sphingomonas sp. CJ-5. J Zhejiang Univ Sci. 8: 831–838.

Yedidia I, Benhamou N, Chet I. 1999. Induction of defense responses in cucumber plants (Cucumis Sativus L.) by the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 65: 1061–1070.

Yedidia I, Srivastva AK, Kapulnik Y, Chet I. 2001. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on microelement concentrations and increased growth of cucumber plants. Plant Soil 235: 235–242.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.