Effect of Temperature on the Life Cycle of Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Steinernema abbasi and Heterorhabditis indica


  • Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Department of Nematology, Hisar, 125004, Haryana, India


In vitro studies on the effect of temperature on the life cycle of Steinernema abbasi and Heterorhabditis indica revealed that IJs were able to penetrate Galleria mellonella at temperature range between 20° and 30°C for both the species. The maximum number of IJs of S. abbasi and H. indica emerge from G. mellonella larvae at 30°C and 25°C, respectively, and time (days) taken for emergence of first and second generation individuals of S. abbsi and H. indica on G. mellonella were observed to be 3-4 and 7-8 days and 3-4 and 6-10 days, respectively. The number of male and female amphimictic generation was 25IJs for both EPNs. However the sex ratio was 1: 14.9 at 25°C, 1: 11.6 at 20°C and 1: 11.3 was minimum at 25°C (12.5: 32.5) followed by 20°C (1: 14.7) and 30°C (1: 16.6) S. abbasi and H. indica, respectively. As the temperature decreased, the emergence of IJs also decreased significantly.


Entomopathogenic Nematodes(EPNs), Heteorhabditis indica, Life Cycle, Steinernema abbasi and Temperature.

Subject Discipline


Full Text:


Bedding, R. A. and Akhurst, R. J. 1975. A simple technique for the detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica, 21: 109-110.

Bedding, R. A., Akhurst, R. J. and Kaya, U. K. 1993. Nematodes and the biological control of insect pests. CSIRO publications, East Melbourne, Australia, 432pp.

Brown, I. M. and Gaugler, R. 1997. Temperature and humidity influence emergence and survival of entomopathogenic nematodes. Nematologica, 43: 363-375.

Dutky, S. R., Thompson, J. V. and Cantwell, G. E. 1964. A technique for the mass propagation of the DD- 136 Nematode. Journal of Insect Pathology, 417-422.

Ganguly, S. 2003. Taxonomy of Entomopathogenic nematodes and work done in India 30: 69-108.

Current Status of Research on Entomopathogenic Nematodes in India.

Gaugler, R. and Kaya, H. K. 1990. Entomopathgenic Nematodes in Biological Control. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Florida, USA, 252pp.

Hussaini, S. S. Nagesh, M. and Shakeela, V. 2005. Survival of infective juveniles of Entomopathogenic nematodes under storage and their infectivity against Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera litura. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 33: 68-71.

Karunakar, G., David, H. and Easwaramoorthy, S. 1999. Influence of temperature on infectivity, penetration and multiplication of Steinernema feltiae, S. glaseri and Heterorhabditis indicus. International Journal of Nematology, 6: 26-28.

Lindergreen, J. E., Valero, K. A. and Mackey, B. E. 1993. Simple in vivo production and storage methods for Steinernema carpocopasae infective juvenile. Journal of Experimental Nematology, 26: 193-197.

Effect of temperature on life cycle of entomopathogenic nematodes Parkman, J. P. and Smart, G. C. 1996. Entomopathogenic nematodes, a case study: Introduction of Steinernema scapterisci in Florida. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 6: 413-419.

Poinar, G. O. 1979. Nematodes of Biological Control of Insect. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 227pp.

Shamseldean, M. M., Abd-Elgawad, M. M. and Atwa, A. A. 1996. Evaluation of four entomopathogenic nematodes against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae under different temperatures. Anzieger fur Schadling skunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 69: 111-113.

Subramanian, S. 2000. Studies on the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterohabditis indica Poinar and Steinernema glaseri (Steiner). Ph. D. thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.

Subramanian, S. 2004. Influence of temperature on the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes. Current Nematology, 15: 61-64.

Yang, P. and Li, S. C. 1988. The effect of temperature on the development and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes. Insect Knowledge, 25: 300-302.


  • There are currently no refbacks.