Identification of larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae)


  • Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh
  • Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Life and Earth Science Group, National University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
  • Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, 1000, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is native to South and South-East Asia. It is a polyphagous species and has a high reproductive potential (approx. 600 eggs in a lifetime), high biotic potential, i.e., several generations of progeny per year. The species has the rapid dispersal ability and can be active throughout the year. Its establishment may have a serious impact on the environment following the initiation of chemical and/or biological control programmes. B. zonata is of quarantine significance to EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) countries and it is classified on the A1 list of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests by Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI). The present study initiates an attempt to identify the larval (3rd instar) salivary gland polytene chromosome arms of B. zonata using Olympus phase contrast microscope CX 41. A photographic representation of the polytene chromosomes of this species associates with identifying tips as well as well defined characteristics of each polytene chromosome arms are described. Five long chromosomes with their identifying tips are recognized in each polytene nucleus. Polytene chromosomes are of special interest to construct a Genetic Sexing Strain (GSS) of a pest species and it can play an important role for the successful application of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in field application as part of the biological control programme under Integrated Pest Management (IPM) scheme.


Biological control, insect pest, peach fruit fly, polytene chromosomes

Full Text:


Ashburner M. 1992. Mapping insect genomes, pp. 51-75. In: Crampton IM, Eggleston P. (Eds.). Insect Molecular Science. Academic press Ltd, London, UK.

Benelli G, Daane KM, Canale A, Niu CY, Messing RH, Vargas RI. 2014. Sexual communication and related behaviours in Tephritidae-Current knowledge and potential applications for Integrated Pest Management. J Pest Sci. 87: 385-405.

Canale A, Benelli G, Conti B, Lenzi G, Flamini G, Francini A, Cioni PL. 2013. Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Nat Prod Res. 27: 2091-2099. PMid:23594314

Canale A, Benelli G. 2012. Impact of mass-rearing on the host-seeking behaviour and parasitism by the fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Szepligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J Pest Sci. 85: 65-74.

Clarke AR, Powell KS, Weldon CW, Taylor PW. 2011. The ecology of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae): What do we know to assist pest management? Annu Appl Biol. 158: 26-54.

Daane KM, Johnson MW. 2010. Olive fruit fly: Managing and ancient pest in modern times. Annu Rev Entomol. 55: 151169. PMid:19961328

Drew RAI, Hancock DL. 2000. Phylogeny of the tribe Dacini (Dacinae) based on morphological, distributional, and biological data, pp. 491-504. In: Aluja M and Norrbom AL (Eds.). Fruit Flies (Tephritidae): Phylogeny and Evolution of Behavior. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Ekesi S, Mohamed SA. 2011. Mass rearing and quality control parameters for tephritid fruit flies of economic importance in Africa, pp. 387-410. In: Akyar I. (Eds.). Wide Spectra of Quality Control. In: Tech, Rijeka, Croatia.

EPPO/CABI. 1997. Bactrocera dorsalis. Bactrocera zonata. Quarantine Pests for Europe, Second Edition, CAB International, Wallingfrod, UK.

Estes AM, Nestel D, Belcari A, Jessup A, Rempoulakis P, Economopoulos AP. 2012. A basis for the renewal of sterile insect technique for the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi). J Appl Entomol. 136: 1-16.

FAO/IAEA website. Tephritid fruit flies: 14.11.2018.

Garcia-Martinez V, Hernandez-Ortiz E, Zepeta-Cisneros CS, Robinson AS, Zacharopoulou A, Franz G. 2009. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analysis in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Genome, 52: 20-30. PMid:19132068

Gardner EJ, Snustad DP. 1975. Principles of Genetics. 5th Edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hendrichs J, Robinson AS, Cayol JP, Enkerlin W. 2002. Medfly area wide sterile insect technique porgrammes for prevention, suppression or eradication: the importance of mating behavior studies. Fla Entomol. 85: 1-13.[0001:MASITP]2.0 .CO;2

Kapoor VC. 1993. Indian Fruit Flies (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae). New Delhi, India; Oxford, UK, IBH publishing Company, New Delhi, India.

Lauzon CR, Potter SE. 2012. Description of the irradiated and non irradiated midgut of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) used for sterile insect technique. J Pest Sci. 85: 217-226.

Leblanc L. Hossain MA, Khan SA, San Jose M, Rubinoff D. 2013. A preliminary survey of the fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of Bangladesh. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc. 45: 51-58

Liu X, Jin Y, Ye H. 2013. Recent spread and climatic ecological niche of the invasive guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta, in mainland China. J Pest Sci. 86: 449-458.

Norrbom AL. 2010. Tephritidae (Fruit Flies, Moscas de Frutas), pp. 909-954. In: Brown BV, Borkent A, Cumming JM, Wood DM, Woodley NE, Zumbado MA. (Eds.). Manual of Central American Diptera.

NRC-CNRC Research Press, Ottawa, Canada.

Painter TS. 1933. A new method for the study of chromosome rearrangements and the plotting of chromosome maps. Science 78: 585-586. science.78.2034.585 PMid:17801695

Pardue ML, Gall JG. 1975. Nucleic acid hybridization to the DNA of cytological preparations. Methods Cell Biol. 10: 1-16.

Qureshi ZA, Ashraf M, Bughio AR, Siddiqui QH. 1975. Population fluctuation and dispersal studies of the fruit fly, Dacus zonatus Saunders, pp. 201-206. International Atomic Energy Agency; Food and Agriculture Organization: Sterility principle for insect control. 1974. Proceedings of the symposium on the sterility principle for insect control jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO of the United Nations and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna Austria.

Qureshi ZA, Hussain T, Siddique QH. 1991. Relative preference of mango varieties by Dacus zonatus (Saunders) and D. dorsalis (Hendel). Pakistan J Zool. 23: 85-87.

Schutze M, Aketarawong N, Amornsak W, Armstrong KF, Augustinos AA, Barr N, Bo W, Bourtzis K, Boykin LM, Caceres C, Cameron SL, Chapman TA, Chinvinijkul S, Chomic A, de Meyer M, Drosopoulou E, Englenou A, Ekesi S, Gariou-Papalexiou A, Geib SM, Hailstones D, Hasanuzzaman M, Haymer D, Hee, AKW, Hendrichs J, Jessup A, Ji Q, Khamis FM, Krosch MN, Leblanc L, Mahmood K, Malacrida AR, Mavragani-Tsipidou P, Mwatawala M, Nishida R, Ono H, Reyes J, Rubinoff D, Sanjose M, Shelly TE, Srikachar S, Tan KH, Thanaphum S, Haq I, Vijaysegaran S, Wee SL, Yesmin F, Zacharopoulou A, Clarke AR. 2015. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data. Sys Entomol. 40: 456-471.

Shahjahan RM, Yesmin F. 2002. Polytene chromosome maps of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Genome 15: 1167-1174.

Sivinski J, Aluja M. 2012. The roles of parasitoid foraging for hosts, food and mates in the augmentative control of Tephirtidae. Insects 3: 668-691. insects3030668 PMid:26466622 PMCid:PMC4553583

Sumner AT. 2003. Chromosomes: organization and function. Blackwell Publishing. 287 pp.

Uchoa MA, Nicacio JN. 2010. New records of Neotropical fruit flies (Tephritidae), lance flies (Lonchaediaed) (Diptera: Tephritoidea), and their host plants in the South pantanal and adjacent areas, Brazil. Ann Entomol Soc America 103: 723-733. AN09179

Vargas RI, Leblanc L, Harris EJ, Manoukis NC. 2012. Regional suppression of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through biological control and prospects for future introductions into other areas of the world. Insects 3: 727-742.

Vargas RI, Mau RFL, Jang EB, Faust RM, Wong L. 2008. The Hawaii fruit fly area wide pest management programme, pp. 300-325. In: Koul O, Cuperus G. (Eds.). Area wide Pest Management: Theory and Implementation. CABI Books, London, UK.

Vargas RI, Shelly TE, Leblanc L, Pinero JC. 2010. Recent advances in methyl eugenol and cue lure technologies for fruit fly detection, monitoring and control in Hawaii, pp. 575-596. In: Liwack G. (Eds.). Vitamins and Hormones. Elsevier Inc, Academic press, Burlington, UK.

Yesmin F, Clyde MM. 2102a. Identification and characterization of polytene chromosomes of Bactrocera papaya (Diptera: Tephritidae). Malaysian Appl Biol. 41: 11-18.

Yesmin F, Clyde MM. 2012b. Salivary gland polytene chromosome maps of the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papaya (Diptera: Tephritidae). Acad J Entomol. 5: 126-132.

Yesmin F, Clyde MM. 2012c. The chromosomes of the Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Metaphase karyotype and polytene genome. GSTF J Biosci. 1: 10-15.

Yesmin F, Clyde MM. 2012d. Polytene Chromosome Analysis of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Curr Res J Biol Sci. 4: 725-730.

Zacharopoulou A. 1987. Cytogenetic analysis of mitotic and salivary gland chromosomes in the Medfly Ceratitis capitata. Genome 29: 67-71. g87-011

Zacharopoulou A. 1990. Polytene chromosome maps in the medfly Ceratitis capitata. Genome 33: 184-197. https://

Zacharopoulou A, Sayed WAA, Augustinos AA, Yesmin F, Robinson AS, Franz G. 2011a. Analysis of mitotic and polytene chromosomes and photographic polytene chromosome map in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am. 104: 306-318.

Zacharopoulou, A., A.A. Augustinos, W.A.A. Sayed, A.S. Robinson and G. Franz, 2011b. Mitotic and polytene chromosomes analysis of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae). Genetica 139: 79-90. PMid:20844937

Zambetaki A, Kleanthous K, Mavragani-Tsipudou P. 1995. Cytogenetic analysis of malpighin tubule and salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Bactrocera oleae (Dacusoleae) Diptera: Tephritidae. Genome 38: 1070-1081.

Zhao JT, Frommer M, Sved JA, Zacharopoulou A. 1998. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analyses in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). Genome 41: 510-526.

Zhimulev IF, Belayaeva ES, Semeshin VF, Koryakov DE, Demakov SA, Demakova OV, Pokholkova GV, Andreyeva EN. 2004. Polytene chromosomes: 70 years of genetic research. Int Rev Cytol. 241: 203-275. https://

Zhimulev IF. 2001. Polytene chromosomes in Encyclopedia of life sciences. John Wiley & Sons. PMCid:PMC14628


  • There are currently no refbacks.