Survey on parasitoids of shoot, panicle and capsule borer, Conogethes sp., (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in small cardamom of cardamom hill reserve, Kerala


  • Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Division of Entomology, Kerala, 685553, India
  • Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Spices Board India, Division of Entomology, Kerala, 685553, India


Survey was conducted in the three different cardamom zones, viz., Vandanmedu (Zone A), Myladumpara (Zone B), and Santhanpara (Zone C) to study the incidence of natural parasitoids of Conogethes sp., on cardamom plant parts viz., shoot, panicle and capsule in Cardamom Hill Reserve (CHR), Idukki district, Kerala. under Pesticide Applied Cardamom Field (PACF) and Pesticide Non Applied Cardamom Field (PNACF) and compared. Two natural parasitoids viz., larval parasitoid, Apanteles taragamae Vierick (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and larval-pupal parasitoid, Agrypon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) only were recorded. Apanteles taragamae parasitism was high on the Conogethes population found on capsules (1.01 to 16.79%) than shoots (0.13 to 0.54%) and panicles (0.03%) and also noticed first time in shoots and panicles. Agrypon sp. was high on the Conogethes population found on shoots only (5.46 to 9.63%) and this species not parasitized on Conogethes in panicles and capsules. It is suggested that this well known species of local strain be further evaluated for potential use in mass rearing and augmentative release of this parasitoid for managing Conogethes in cardamom ecosystem.


Conogethes sp., Elettaria cardamomum, parasitoids, small cardamom

Full Text:


Ansar Ali MA, Manoharan T, Kuttalam S. 2014. First report of larval parasitoids on small cardamom shoot, capsule, panicle borer, Conogethes punctiferalis

Guenee (Lepidoptera; Crambidae) under lab and field Conditions. Trends Biosci J. 7: 3771-3773.

Blibech I, Ksantini M, Jardak T, Bouaziz M. 2015. Effect of insecticides on Trichogramma parasitoids used in biological control against Prays oleae insect pest. Adv Chem Eng Sci. 5: 362-372 aces.2015.53038

Bueno ADF, Bueno RCODF, Parra JRP, Vieira SS. 2008. Effects of pesticides used in soybean crops to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum. Ciência Rural 38: 1495-1503.

Devasahayam S. 1996. Biological control of insect pests of spices. In: pp 33-45. Anandaraj M, Peter KV (Eds.). Biological control in spices. Calicut, Indian Institiute of Spices Research.

Gonzalez-Zamora JE, Castillo ML, Avilla C. 2013. Side effects of different pesticides used in citrus on the adult stage of the parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and its progeny. Spanish Agric Res. 11: 494-504.

Gopakumar B, Chandrasekar SS. 2002. Insect pests of cardamom. In: pp. 190-20. Ravindran PN, Madhusoodanan KJ (Eds.). Cardamom: The genus Elettaria. Taylor and Francis, London and New York.

Praseeda AS. 2018. Survey on incidence of shoot, panicle and capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenee), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) parasitoids of small cardamom in Cardamom Hill Reserve (CHR), Dissertation submitted to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala. 46pp.


  • There are currently no refbacks.