Morphometric analysis of Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, an important biological control agent of agriculture and forestry


Affiliations

  • Forest Research Institute, Forest Entomology Division, Dehradun, India

Abstract

Taxonomy of Trichogramma species is very important for their biological control program. Various researchers have proposed the taxonomic keys based on genitalia but there are other important characters that needs consideration and these have been largely ignored by taxonomists while proposing the taxonomic keys. In the present study, the emphasis is given on morphometry of some important characters including genitalia in Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. The average body length of both male and female were measured as 0.478 mm and 0.543 mm, respectively, it showed that females are longer than males. Important characters such as head length and width, hind wing length and width, also length of its marginal fringes were measured including setae on RS1, RS2, r-m veins and statistically analyzed for significant differences. Detailed morphometry of T. achaeae is described and discussed.

Keywords

Characters, measurements, morphometrics, Trichogramma achaeae

Subject Discipline

Trichogramma; Morphometrics; Forestry

Full Text:

References

Burks RA, Heraty JM. 2002. Morphometric analysis of four species of Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) attacking coding moth and other tortricid pests in North America. J Hymenoptera Res. 11(2): 167–187.

Chan ML, Chou LY. 2000. The Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) of Taiwan. Chin J Entomol. 20: 135–151.

Garcia-Gonzalez F, Gonzalez-Hernandez A, Pinto VM and Ramirez-Alarcon S. 2009. Morphometry of Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae) species from mass rearing centers of Mexico. Acta Zool Mex. 25(2): 409–425.

Hassan E, Yousuf M. 2007. First record of Trichogramma plasseyensis Nagaraja (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) from central India, and its morphometric and additional diagnostic characters. Ind J Entomol. 69(1): 58–62.

Hoffmann MP, Ode PR, Walker DL, Gardner J, van Nouhuys S, Shelton AM. 2001. Performance of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared on factitious hosts, including the target host, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Biol Control 21(1): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1006/bcon.2000.0912

Jalali SK. 2013. Natural Occurrence, Host Range and Distribution of Trichogrammatid Egg Parasitoids. In: Sithanantham, S., Ballal, C.R., Jalali, S.K., Bakthavatsalam, N. (Eds.), Biological Control of Insect Pests Using Egg Parasitoids. Springer India. pp. 67–76

Nagaraja H, Nagarkatti S. 1969. Three new species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from India. Entomophaga 14(4): 393–400. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02390544

Nagarkatti S, Nagaraja H. 1971. Redescription of some known species of Trichogramma (Hym., Trichogrammatidae), showing the importance of the male genitalia as a diagnostic character. Bull Ent Res. 61: 13–31. https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300057412

Pinto JD. 2006. A Review of the New World Genera of Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera). International Soc Hymenopterists 15(1): 38–163.

Platner GR, Velten RK, Planoutene M, Pinto JD. 1999. Slide-mounting techniques for Trichogramma (Trichogrammatidae) and other minute parasitic Hymenoptera. Entomol News 110: 56–64.

Querino RB, Zucchi RA. 2003. Morphologic characterization of ten species of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) recorded in the South America. Neotropical Entomol. 32(4): 597–613. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2003000400010

Thomson LJ, Rundle BJ, Carew ME, Hoffmann AA. 2003. Identification and characterization of Trichogramma species from south-eastern Australia using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region of the ribosomal gene complex. Entomol Exp Appl. 106(3): 235–240. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1570-7458.2003.00029.x

Noyes JS. 2017. Universal Chalcidoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available from: http:// www.nhm.ac.uk/chalcidoids (accessed on 16-05-2017).

Yousuf M, Hassan ME, Joshi KC. 2008. Record of Trichogramma raoi Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichog rammatidae) from central India, along with additional morphometric and diagnostic characters. J Trop Forestry 24(III & IV): 69–74.

Yousuf M, Ikram M, Faisal M. 2015. Current Status of Indian Trichogramma spp. along with their Distributional Record and Host Range. Ind Forester 141(7): 806–812.

Yousuf M, Ikram M, Khan S, Azad MK. 2016a. Culture development of an indigenous species of Trichogramma from Punjab and its laboratory testing against poplar defoliator. Bioscan 11(4): 2071–2075.

Yousuf M, Khan S, Ikram M, Singh KP. 2016b. Diversity of Biological Control Agents Trichogramma from Punjab (India) and Its Importance in Forestry and Agroforestry Systems. J Env Bio-Sciences 30(2): 541–547.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.