A Comparison of Macronutrient Intake and Anthropometric Profile between Male and Female Type 2 Diabetics


Affiliations

  • Fernandez Hospital Foundation, Department of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500 001, India
  • Osmania Medical College and General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

Medical nutrition therapy and weight management are vital for type 2 diabetes management. Obesity and truncal adiposity increase insulin resistance and predict progression and severity of diabetes. The objective was to identify macronutrient intake, assess body composition and associations between the two, among South Indians. A crosssectional observational study was conducted in the endocrinology OPD at a public hospital (n=88). Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hour recall, body composition using bioelectrical impedance, Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) using standardized techniques. Mean calorie intake was 1956.52 ± 373.52 kcal and 1578.82 ± 256.64 kcal (p<0.001) in men and women respectively. Carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes were 59.55 ± 4.33, 11.44 ± 1.49 and 26.45 ± 4.67 % Total Energy (TE) in men and 56.12 ± 5.92, 10.54 ± 2.46 and 32.77 ± 5.24% TE in women. More women consumed inadequate protein, consumed > 30% TE from fat (p = 0.008) and were sedentary (p = 0.02). Per BMI, 40.9% were overweight and 34.1% obese. Majority were obese as per WC (87.5%) and WHR (93.2%). There were no significant differences between genders for fat and muscle mass. Of the total population, 3.4%, 34.1%, and 2.3% had normal total body fat, visceral fat and skeletal muscle mass respectively. Female diabetics are less likely to meet macronutrient and physical activity guidelines. Most exceed BMI have high body fat and truncal adiposity. Weight management, dietary intake and physical activity counselling may be a costeffective strategy in this population.

Keywords

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Diabetes, Body Composition, Waist Circumference, Waist-Hip Ratio, Obesity, Skeletal Muscle.

Subject Collection

Hyderabad, India

Subject Discipline

Nutrition

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