Medicinal Plants as Sources of Retina Protective Carotenoids (Lutein, β-carotene) and their Radical Scavenging Property


Affiliations

  • CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Mysore, Karnataka, 570020, India

Abstract

The study assesses the Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE), lutein and zeaxanthin, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential of medicinal plants. Amongst plants, the highest levels (mg/100 g dry weight) of β-carotene and lutein + zeaxanthin were detected in Centella asiatica, (197.5) and V. aroma (894.6). Interestingly, V. aroma (871, 85), Acacia concinna (587, 65), Centella asiatica (404, 198), Oxalis corniculata (501, 196) and Tinospara cordifolia (417, 120) are rich in β-carotene and lutein + zeaxanthin. The RAE (RAE/100 g dry wt.) is higher in A. citratus (9.5), B. diffusa (13.0), C. asiatica (16.5) and V. negundo (10.1) respectively. Total polyphenols were higher in R. officinalis (10.26 mg/g) and B. diffusa (8.07 mg/g). Among plants, R. officinalis, P. amboinicus and B. diffusa, showed highest free-radical scavenging (98%) radical reducing power (73.61%) and inhibition of the peroxidation (33.4%). To conclude, plants having higher levels of RAE and lutein + zeaxanthin can ameliorate vitamin-A deficiency and age-related macular degeneration.

Keywords

Lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol activity equivalent, -carotene, vitamin-A deficiency, polyphenols

Full Text:

References

Katewa, S.S. Indigenous people and forests: perspectives of an ethnobotanical study from Rajasthan (India). In K. G. Ramawat (Ed.), Herbal Drugs: Ethnomed. Modern Med., 2009, 33-56. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-79116-4_3

Hafeel, A. and Shankar, D. Revitalising indigenous health practices. COMPAS Newsletter, 1999, 1, 28-29.

Caniago, I. and Stephen, F.S. Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Econ. Botany, 1998, 52, 229-250. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02862141

Edeoga, H.O., Okwu, D.E. and Mbaebie, B.O. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotech., 2005, 4, 685-688. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2005.000-3127

Hyder, M.S., Shihabudeen. H., Priscilla, H. and Thirumurugan, K. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of selected Indian folk medicinal plants. Int. J. Pharma Sci. Res., 2010, 1, 430-434.

Ayensu, E.S. and DeFilipps, R. Endangered and threatened plants of the United States.Endangered and Threatened Plants of the United States. 1978. Retrieved from https:// www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19790653856

Verpoorte, R. Pharmacognosy in the new millennium: lead finding and biotechnology.J. Pharma. Pharmacol., 2000, 52, 253-262. https://doi.org/10.1211/0022357001773931

Sangeetha, R.K. and Baskaran, V. Retinol-deficient rats can convert a pharmacological dose of astaxanthin to retinol: antioxidant potential of astaxanthin, lutein and  carotene. Canad.J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2010, 88, 977-985. https://doi.org/10.1139/y10-074

Hoareau, L. and DaSilva, E.J. Medicinal plants: A re-emerging health aid. Elect. J. Biotechnol., 1999, 2, 56-70. https://doi.org/10.2225/vol2-issue2-fulltext-2

Rabe, T. and van Staden, J. Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes. J. Ethnopharmacol., 1997, 56, 81-87.

Sangeetha Ravi Kumar. and Baskaran, V. Carotenoid composition and retinol equivalent in plants of nutritional and medicinal importance: Efficacy of  carotene from Chenopodium album in retinol-deficient rats. Fd. Chem., 2010a, 119, 1584-1590.

Grover, J.K., Yadav, S. and Vats, V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.J. Ethnopharmacol., 2002, 81, 81-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00059-4

Sangeetha Ravi Kumar. and Baskaran, V. Carotenoid composition and retinol equivalent in plants of nutritional and medicinal importance: Efficacy of  carotene from Chenopodium album in retinol-deficient rats. Fd. Chem., 2010, 119, 1584-1590. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.foodchem.2009.09.047

Velioglu, Y.S., Mazza, G., Gao, L. and Oomah, B.D. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables and grain products. J. Agricult. Fd. Chem., 1998, 46, 4113-4117.https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9801973

Lakshminarayana, R., Raju, M., Krishnakantha, T.P. and Baskaran, V. Determination of major carotenoids in a few Indian leafy vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography.J. Agricult. Fd. Chem., 2005, 53, 2838-2842. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0481711

Duh, P.D. and Yen, G.C. Antioxidative activity of three herbal water extracts. Fd. Chem., 1997, 60, 639-645. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00049-6

Oyaizu, M. Studies on products of browning reaction anti-oxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Eiyogaku zasshi = Jap. J. Nutr.. 1986, Retrieved from http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201302009163

Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdicphosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Viticult., 1965, 16, 144-158. Retrieved from https:/ /www.ajevonline.org/content/16/3/144

Prieto, P., Pineda, M. and Aguilar, M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analy. Biochem., 1999, 269, 337-341. https://doi.org/10.1006/ abio.1999.4019

Mamatha, B.S. and Baskaran, V. Effect of micellar lipids, dietary fiber and -carotene on lutein bioavailability in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Nutr., (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) 2011, 27, 960-966. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2010.10.011

Khachik, F., Goli, M., Beecher, G., Holden, J.R., Lusby, W.D., Tenorio, M.R. and Barrera, M.

Effects of food preparation on quantitative distribution of major carotenoid constituents of tomatoes and several vegetables. J. Agricul. Fd. Chem., 1992, 40, 390-398. https://doi.org/ 10.1021/jf00015a006

Niizu, P.Y. and Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. New data on the carotenoid composition of raw salad vegetables. J. Fd. Compo. Analy., 2005, 18, 739-749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.09.001

Raju, M., Varakumar, S., Lakshminarayana, R., Krishnakantha, T. P. and Baskaran, V. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A activity of medicinally important green leafy vegetables. Fd. Chem., 2007, 101, 1598-1605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.015

Aruna, G. and Baskaran, V. Comparative study on the levels of carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and  carotene in Indian spices of nutritional and medicinal importance. Fd. Chem., 2010, 123, 404-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.04.056

Tanti, B., Buragohain, A.K., Gurung, L., Kakati, D., Das, A.K. and Borah, S.P. Assessment of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume) chew leaves-A medicinal plant used by ethnic communities of North East India Indian. Ind. J. Natur. Prod. Res., 2010, 1, 17-21.

Kotake-Nara, E. and Nagao, A. Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls. Marine Drugs, 2011, 9, 1024-1037. https://doi.org/10.3390/md9061024

Sangeetha, R.K., Bhaskar, N. and Baskaran, V. Comparative effects of beta-carotene and fucoxanthin on retinol deficiency induced oxidative stress in rats. Molecul. Cellul. Biochem., 2009, 331, 59-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-009-0145-y

Marisiddaiah, R., Sadineni, V., T.P.K. and Vallikannan, B. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A activity of medicinally important green leafy vegetables. Fd. Chem., 2007, 101, 15981605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.015

Bouayed, J. and Bohn, T. Exogenous antioxidants-double-edged swords in cellular redox state. Oxidat. Med. Cellular Longev., 2010, 3, 228-237. https://doi.org/10.4161/oxim.3.4.12858

Woodall, A.A., Lee, S.W.M., Weesie, R.J., Jackson, M.J. and Britton, G. Oxidation of carotenoids by free radicals: relationship between structure and reactivity. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-general subjects, 1997, 1336, 33-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4165(97)00006-8

Britton, G. Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. The FASEB J., 1995, 9, 1551-1558. https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.9.15.8529834

Gordon, M.H. The Mechanism of antioxidant action in vitro in B.J.F. Hudson (Ed.), Fd. Antioxid., 1990, 1-18. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-0753-9_1

Lannone, A., Rota, C., Bergamini, S., Tomasi, A. and Canfield, L.M. Antioxidant activity of carotenoids: An electron-spin resonance study on beta-carotene and lutein interaction with free radicals generated in a chemical system. J. Biochem. Molec. Toxicol., 1998, 12, 299-304.

Britton, G. Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. The FASEB J., 1995, 9, 1551-1558.

Kumaran, A. and Joel Karunakaran, R. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India. LWT - Fd. Sci. Technol., 2007, 40, 344-352. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.lwt.2005.09.011

Kähkönen, M. P., Hopia, A. I., Vuorela, H. J., Rauha, J. P., Pihlaja, K., Kujala, T. S. and Heinonen, M. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J. Agricul. Fd. Chem., 1999, 47, 3954-3962.

Cai, Y., Luo, Q., Sun, M. and Corke, H. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci., 2004, 74, 2157-2184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2003.09.047

Zheng, W. and Wang, S. Y. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.

J. Agricult. Fd. Chem., 2001, 49, 5165-5170.

Komes, D., Belšèak-Cvitanoviæ, A., Horžiæ, D., Rusak, G., Likiæ, S. and Berendika, M. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of some traditionally used medicinal plants affected by the extraction time and hydrolysis. Phytochem. Analy., 2011, 22, 172-180.

Robards, K., Prenzler, P.D., Tucker, G., Swatsitang, P. and Glover, W. Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative processes in fruits. Fd. Chem., 1999, 66, 401-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0308-8146(99)00093-X


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.