Study on Gender Specific Variability of Gastrointestinal, Genitourinary and Depression Related Non Motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease


  • Government Medical College, Amritsar, Department of Anatomy, Punjab, 143001, India
  • Ivy Hospital, Department of Neurology, Amritsar, Punjab, 160071, India


Introduction: Parkinson’s disease is a second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. It affects 1% of population over age of 50 years. Three main features of PD is asymmetric onset of bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremors. Non motor symptoms are common in patients of Parkinson’s Disease. These remain undiagnosed most of the time. Aim and Objectives: To analyse gender specific, age related and demographic variability of non motor symptoms (Gastrointestinal, genitourinary and depression related symptoms) of Parkinson’s disease. Material and Methods: Present study Included 100 cases (65 Males and 35 Females) of Parkinson’s disease presenting at department of neurology, Dayanand Medical College and hospital, Ludhiana. 30 questionnaire of non motor symptoms in hindi and Punjabi were given to patients. Gender, age, duration of non motor symptoms, Parkinson’s phenotype and complete demographic profile of each patient taken into account for study. Thereafter results were statistically analysed for all parameters. Conclusion: It is concluded that mean age and duration of non-motor symptoms were higher in males as compared to females. GI symptoms amongst non-motor symptoms were commonest and amongst GI symptoms constipation was most common and there was positive correlation of H&Y with age and non motor symptoms especially gastrointestinal, genitourinary and depression related symptoms.


Gender Specific Variability, Non Motor Symptoms of Parkinson, Parkinson’s disease

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