Gallbladder Disease in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a modern epidemic which leads to various complications over a period of time. Autonomic neuropathy is one such complication which may lead on to gallbladder dysmotility and gallbladder stones.
Objectives: To determine the incidence of gallbladder disorders in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to find out the incidence of autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlate it with presence of gall bladder disorders.
Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in 50 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 25 healthy age and sex matched normal individuals were taken as controls. The cases as well as the controls underwent ultrasonographic examination for gall bladder volume, wall thickness, intraluminal mass and contraction in response to fatty meal. Data thus collected was compared and analysed statistically by using students ‘t’ test and chi- square test.
Results: Mean postprandial gallbladder volume was 20.56±8.87 cm3 in diabetics with ANP with gallstones, 26.16±1.24 cm3 in diabetics with ANP with dysmotility 13.0±6.26 cm3 in diabetics with gallstones without ANP, 12.14±4.88 cm3 in normal diabetics and 13.60±5.95 cm3 in controls. The percentage contraction post fatty meal was calculated from these values and found to be 24.73±14.64% in diabetics with ANP with dysmotility, 26.38±17 .04% in diabetics with ANP with dysmotility, 43.48±8.45% in diabetics with gallstones without ANP, 56.84±9.02% in normal diabetics and 57 .64±9.92% in controls.
Conclusion: Incidence of gallbladder disease is much higher in type 2 diabetics (40%) as compared to normal healthy adults (4%). It was concluded that diabetics with ANP had significantly impaired gallbladder emptying. Poor control of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and diabetic autonomic neuropathy are important risk factors for the development of gallbladder disease.
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