Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of Punica granatum against Antibiotic-Resistant Clostridium perfringens Type (D)
Keywords:Punica granatum, Clostridium perfringens, Resistant Bacteria, Anaerobic Bacteria.
The search for new antibiotics and alternative products to solve the increasing number of bacterial resistance to customary antibiotics has become an urgent need. To investigate the effectiveness of the extracts prepared from different parts of Syrian Punica granatum Linn (family Punicaceae), against Clostridium perfringens type (D), which is resistant against many antibiotics, 684 samples were isolated from intestines and livers of death goats by using blood agar, and a selective agar for growing of Clostridium perfringens(SPS agar). The isolated bacteria were typed by using ELISA apparatus. Many parts of Punica granatum was extracted with water, absolute alcohol, then ether by using soxhlet apparatus and rotary evaporator. The Antibiotic susceptibility testing of many antibiotics was conducted by using disc diffusion method in anaerobic atmosphere and break points method. The alcoholic extracts prepared from many parts of punica granatum (pericarp, leaves, flowers, seeds) showed different antibacterial effect against Clostridium perfringens type(D),whereas the studied antibiotics had not shown any antibacterial effect, except Clindamycin which showed partial effectiveness.
Skariyachan S, Mahajanakatti A, Biradar U, Sharma N, M A. Isolation, identification and characterization of clostridium perfringens from cooked meat - poultry samples and in silico biomodeling of its delta enterotoxin. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2010;4(2):164 - 72 .
Heikinheimo A, Korkeala H. Multiplex PCR assay for toxinotyping Clostridium perfringens isolates obtained from Finnish broiler chickens. Letters in applied microbiology. 2005;40( 6):407 - 11 .
Uzal FA , Songer JG. Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2008;20(3):253 - 65 .
Evans W. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 15thed ed: WB Saunders company Ltd; 2002 .
Rathinamoorthy R, Udayakumar S, Thilagavathi G. Antibacterial Efficacy Analysis of Punica Granatum L. Leaf, Rind And Terminalia Chebula Fruit Extract Treated Cotton Fabric Against Five Most Common Human Pathogenic Bacteria. Int J of Pharm & Li fe Sci(IJPLS). 2011 ; 2:1147 - 53 .
Lee C - J, Chen L - G, Liang W - L, Wang C - C. Anti - inflammatory Effects of Punica granatum Linne in Vitro and in Vivo. 2009 .
Duman AD, Ozgen M, Dayisoylu KS, Erbil N, Durgac C. Antimicrobial activity of six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties and their relation to some of their pomological and phytonutrient characteristics. Molecules. 2009;14(5):1808 - 17 .
Choi J - G, Kang O - H, Lee Y - S, Chae H - S, Oh Y - C, Brice O - O, et al. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of Pu nica granatum peel ethanol extract against Salmonella. Evidence - Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011;2011 .
Rood JI, Maher EA, Somers EB, Campos E, Duncan CL. Isolation and characterization of multiply antibiotic - resistant Clostridium perfringens strains from porcine feces. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1978;13(5):871 - 80 .
Radulovic N, Stankov - Jovanovic V, Stojanovic G, Smelcerovic A, Spiteller M, Asakawa Y. Screening of in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of nine Hypericum speciesfrom the Balkans. Food chemistry. 2007;103(1):15 - 21 .
Wang L, Weller CL. Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from plants. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2006;17(6):300 - 12 .
Hamad M, Habra N, Kalb - Allose A. Isolated of Clostridium perfringens from intestinal bacteriotoxemia cases in the province of Hama. Al - Baath University journal. 2009;31(2).
Miah M, Asaduzzaman M, Sufian M, Hossain M. Isolation of Clostridium perfringens, Causal agents of necrotic enteritis in chickens. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2011;9(1):97 - 102 .
Rahaman M, Akter M, Abdullah M, Sayed Khan M, Jahan M, Ziaul Haque A, et al. Isolation, identification and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from lamb dysentery in Dinajpur district of Bangladesh. Scientific Journal of Microbiology. 2013;2(4):83 - 8 .
Ebeid M. microbiology. 4th ed: Publications of the University of Damascus; 2000 .
Wilker MA, Cockerill FR, Craig WA, Dudley MN, Eliopoulos GM, Hecht DW. M100 - S17 Perf ormance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing;Seventeenth Informationl Supplement. 2007;27(1).
Andrews J. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 8). Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2009;64(3):454 - 89 .
Angelotti R, Hall HE, Foter MJ, Lewis KH. Quantitation of Clostridium perfringens in foods. Applied microbiology. 1962;10(3):193 - 9 .
Asha N, Wilcox M. Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens antibiotic - associated diarrhoea. Journal of medical microbi ology. 2 002 ; 51 ) 10 :( 891 - 4).
HADIMLI HH, Erganiş O, Sayin Z, Aras Z. Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates by ELISA and PCR from lambs suspected of enterotoxemia. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2012;36(4):409 - 15 .
Alexand er CJ , Citron DM, Brazier JS, Goldstein E. Identification and antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinical isolates of Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium innocuum, and Clostridium ramosum compared with those of clinical isolates of Clostridium perfr ingens . Journal of clinical microbiology. 1995; 33(12):3209 - 15
Stevens DL, Maier KA, Laine BM, Mitten JE. Comparison of clindamycin, rifampin, tetracycline, metronidazole, and penicillin for efficacy in prevention of experimental gas gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1987;155(2):220 - 8 .
Naziri Z, Rajaian H, Firouzi R. Antibacterial effects of Iranian native sour and sweet pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extracts against various pathogenic bacteria. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2012;13(4):282 - 8 .
Jafri M, Aslam M, Javed K, Singh S. Effect of Punica granatum Linn.(flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan - induced diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2000;70(3):309 - 14 .
Bagri P , Ali M, Aeri V, Bhowmik M, Sultana S. Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: Effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009;47(1):50 - 4 .
Gruen wald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C. Physicians' Desk Reference(PDR) For Herbal Medicines: Medical Economics Company; 2000 .
Parseh H, Hassanpour S, Emam - djome Z, Lavasani AS. Antimicrobial properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) as a Tannin rich Fruit .
Oraki HH, Demirci AÅž, Gumus T. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv.) peel. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 2011;10(3).
Lee C - J, Chen L - G, Liang W - L, Wang C - C. Anti - inflammatory effects of Punica granatum Linne in vitro and in vivo. Food chemistry. 2010;118(2):315 - 22